Plants are vital to life as their presence maintains ecosystem on this living globe. Environmental stresses trigger multiple responses initiated by plant cells to save plant life, from altered gene expression up to changes in cellular metabolism to regulate plant growth rates, which lead to better crop yield. The production of different osmoprotectants like proline, glycine-betaine (GB), trehalose, and antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase has shown a promising role to keep away cells from immediate cellular damage. Root-to-shoot ratio was enhanced in the drought-affected genotypes, while osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes take up the role to overcome drought situation in wheat germplasm. PEG-induced protocol was used to find out the production of osmolytes (proline, glycine-betaine, and trehalose) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and APX) biochemically. The levels of antioxidant enzymes and osmolytes were enhanced significantly in all germplasms indicating the defensive measures of plant cells in drought situation. DNA fingerprinting results have shown that the different wheat germplasms have an association with the levels of osmoprotectants and antioxidant enzymes during drought stress.
Part of the book: Global Wheat Production