Advanced breeding lines of spring and winter wheat with several effective resistance genes to stem rust, including its aggressive race Ug99, were developed for the first time for the non-Chernozem zone of Russia. Modern wheat varieties cultivated in this region have high productivity and grain quality. However, they are susceptible to fungal diseases and therefore are cultivated using frequent fungicides treatments. The introgression wheat lines with multiple alien translocations (“Arsenal” collection) have been developed in the Moscow Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture “Nemchinovka” by using gamma irradiation of pollen of wild wheat relatives (Aegilops speltoides, Ae. triuncialis, Triticum kiharae, Secale cereale). Initial material with several effective Sr resistance genes for wheat breeding was developed using donors from the “Arsenal” and the VIR collections. The created initial material can compete with modern varieties, as it has resistance to leaf rust and powdery mildew, high productivity and numerous other advantages. On this basis, a new direction in breeding of spring and winter wheat is developed for this region, that is, creation of wheat cultivars with resistance to fungal diseases. This allows to reduce the fungicide load during cultivation with the goal of producing ecologically clean grain for healthy diet.
Part of the book: Global Wheat Production