Staphylococci are normally harmless commensals occurring on the skin, mucous membrane and the general environment. However, they are increasingly implicated in different infectious states. Of particular interest is the advent of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with its attendance resistance to beta lactam antibiotics. Several infectious states are now emerging with staphylococci being implicated in the infections, e.g. S. saprophyticus has been implicated in urogenital infection. It would be interesting to document the prevalence of staphylococci in different infectious state. The identification of staphylococci is supposed to be a straightforward procedure, but an alarming misidentification rate is emerging in low resource laboratories, especially in places where identification is solely by growth and fermentation on mannitol salt agar (MSA). Finally, empirical treatment of any staphylococci infection will depend on local suspectibility pattern of the strains as the susceptibilities vary from environment to environment. This chapter summarizes the current knowledge regarding the prevalence, diagnosis and local susceptibility of staphylococci in different parts of the world.
Part of the book: Staphylococcus Aureus
The upsurge of resistance in classes of antibiotics in varied bacterial species has increased the search for alternatives to antibiotics in bacterial infections. However, one alternative is the beneficial bacteria in foods, environment and gut. Probiotics is now being embraced as an alternative strategy to combat antibiotic resistant pathogens. A newer application is gut microbiota in its healthy state combating pathogenic and antibiotic resistant microbes. There have been numerous applications of beneficial bacteria against different infectious agents. This article describes the concept of beneficial microbes as antimicrobial agents with current applications as antimicrobial agents, various applications in the human gut with future directions.
Part of the book: Antimicrobial Resistance