Safety-critical applications in transportation require GNSS-based positioning with high levels of continuity, accuracy and integrity. The system needs to detect and exclude faults and to raise an alarm in the event of unsafe positioning. This capability is referred to as integrity monitoring (IM). While IM was considered until recently only in aviation, it is currently a key performance parameter in land applications, such as Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). In this chapter the IM concepts, models and methods developed so far are compared. In particular, Fault Detection and Exclusion (FDE) and bounding of positioning errors methods borrowed from aviation (i.e. Weighted RAIM and ARAIM) are discussed in detail, in view of their possible adoption for land applications. Their strengths and limitations, and the modifications needed for application in the different context are highlighted. A practical demonstration of IM in ITS is presented.
Part of the book: Multifunctional Operation and Application of GPS