The main objective of this chapter is to present to the readers a step‐by‐step design approach when designing antenna array. Subsequently, the chapter will proceed following an example design of a passive Ku band planner receive array antenna for direct broadcast from satellite (DBS) reception for mobile systems. First, an appropriate antenna topology capable of reaching our target goals will be selected and optimized to be the base array element. During the design process of the base element, some figures‐of‐merit will be proposed in order to make a comparative study with the designed antenna and previously published antenna structures. Subarrays of microstrip line feed antennas will be combined by waveguides in order to build a low‐loss feed network for the array antenna. The main question during the design of the feed network is: “How should one form the subarrays and their accompanying waveguide feed networks?” These sections will answer this question by formulating the subarray and array feed network loss as an optimization problem with constraints on the size and the weight of the array. In the concluding sections, measurements on realized antennas will show that the design exhibits a 16.5% relative bandwidth, covering the complete downlink band, and the designed antennas have a 28.4–31.3 dBi gain for both vertical and horizontal polarizations. Results of some field tests will be given and conclusions will be made in the final section.
Part of the book: Microwave Systems and Applications
Antenna and front-end play a key role in global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers where multi-frequency and multi-constellation services are used simultaneously to produce high-precision position, navigation, and timing information. Being the first element on the receiver system, specifications on the antenna for multi-constellation GNSS applications can be challenging. Especially, integration of the antenna into the target platform, either mobile or stationary, may severely affect antenna performance. This is usually an issue for small-size antennas where measured stand-alone antenna performance in ideal conditions is usually not descriptive of actual performance on the platform. Furthermore, carrier phase tracking has become popular among algorithm developers to obtain high accuracy and anti-spoofing at the same time which demand minimal phase centre variation of the antenna within the intended GNSS band. Spoofing and jamming of GNSS receivers is a growing concern especially for aerial vehicles with ever-increasing applications of drones. These requirements demand different characteristics on the antenna and front-end than traditional applications. One of the most utilized forms of GNSS antenna is ceramic patch, due to its low height, low cost, and relatively good narrow band performance. Simulations of this particular antenna in terms of axial ratio and impedance bandwidths, axial ratio variation over elevation, and half-power beam width are carried out and discussed with comparison to its counterparts. Another critical part of the receiver is its front-end where huge amount of signal amplification with minimal distortion takes place. Long integration times (>1 ms) in GNSS signal processing also puts severe requirements on the software and temperature-compensated crystal oscillator. For mass production, the front-end should be implemented in the form of an integrated circuit. Front-end architectures from traditional superheterodyne to zero/low-intermediate frequency configurations are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of each configuration are outlined in view of multi-band and multi-standard GNSS receivers.
Part of the book: Multifunctional Operation and Application of GPS