The performance of GPS receiver depends on the accuracy of the range measurements. The predominant errors in range measurements are due to propagation path delays, making the measured range longer than it would be, if the signal has not reflected or refracted while propagating. In this chapter, an algorithm is proposed to mitigate the multipath error on the pseudorange measured from L1 carrier frequency. The error is estimated considering the linear combination of the GPS measurements and carrier frequencies of L band, viz. L1 and L2. This algorithm exploits the random nature of the multipath error and it avoids complex calculations involving sensitive parameter like reflection coefficient of the nearby reflectors. The multipath error is mitigated for standalone GPS receiver located in Indian subcontinent. Implementation of the algorithm shows pseudorange error due to multipath varied from 7 to 52 m, where the signals of low elevation satellites are most affected. GPS receiver position is calculated by considering multipath error corrected pseudoranges of all the visible satellites. This resulted in maximum error reduction of 30 m in receiver position estimates. This mitigation technique will be useful in selecting the site for GPS receiving antenna, where reflection coefficients are difficult to measure.
Part of the book: Satellites Missions and Technologies for Geosciences
Wireless networks applications of 5G and beyond require high throughput and high capacity. To achieve this, a macro cell is split into several small cells. When using Free Space Optics (FSO) some of the small cell base stations (BSs) which are located at the edges of a macro cell may not directly communicate with the base station of that macro cell, resulting in high outage probability (OP) and average bit error rate (ABER). Therefore, there is a need to develop a new system model to improve the OP and ABER performance. For such scenarios, triple-hop (TH) hybrid free space optics/millimeter wave (FSO/mmW) system has been proposed by considering neighboring small cell BSs as intermediate relays to forward the backhaul data. The OP and ABER of the proposed TH hybrid FSO/mmW system are derived for various channel conditions and are further verified by performing Monte-Carlo simulations. In this work, FSO link is modeled by Gamma-Gamma distribution over weak and strong turbulence channel conditions. Further the mmW link is modeled by using Nakagami-m distribution which perfectly models various fading scenarios.
Part of the book: Multiplexing