Cancer is an uncontrolled growth and division of cells, leading to significant morbidity and mortality and economic burden to the society. Natural products as anticancer molecules have drawn the attention of researchers and have resulted in the development of many successful anticancer drugs, which include camptothecins, epipodophyllotoxins, vinca alkaloids, and taxanes. Another group of compounds with anti-cancer effects include botanicals (phytochemicals) found in the diet. In recent years, a tomato carotenoid lycopene (LYC) has gained attention for its potential health benefits, especially in prevention and treatment of cancer. The studies suggest that the consumption LYC in food or by itself may reduce cancer risk. However, there are insufficient clinical trial data to support the hypothesis. LYC may play a preventive role in a variety of cancers, especially in prostate cancer. It acts by multiple mechanisms including the regulation of growth factor signalling, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, metastasis and angiogenesis, as well as by modulating the anti-inflammatory and phase II detoxification enzymes activities. The effects can be attributed to the unique chemical structure of the carotenoid which confers it a strong antioxidant property. In this chapter, we discuss the chemopreventive and anti-cancer properties of LYC, a dietary carotenoid.”
Part of the book: Natural Products and Cancer Drug Discovery
Personalized care, which includes personalized medicine, personalized nutrition, and even personalized exercise, is a useful and a more effective method for the treatment and control of lifestyle diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The relationship between nutrients, diet and gene expression (commonly called as nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics) and precision or personalized medicine have received considerable attention of researchers, clinicians, drug developers, practitioners of traditional system of medicine, and regulatory agencies over the years. Many, if not all, of the common human debilitating conditions including cancer, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are related directly or indirectly to an individual’s nutritional status and its genetic make up. Understanding the interplay between diet and genes may help provide direction upon which personalized therapy can be used for the treatment and management of these catastrophic life-threatening conditions, including strategies for their prevention. In this era of human healthcare where the diagnosis of the disease and treatment of the patient are perceived to be patient-tailored, due to the differences in the genetic make-up of individuals and their lifestyle, personalized human healthcare could be the most effective method for the treatment and prevention of debilitating diseases with a high morbidity and mortality. This chapter provides an insight into the potential of individualized care in life-threatening complications.
Part of the book: Personalized Medicine, in Relation to Redox State, Diet and Lifestyle