In recent years, natural products such as dietary phytoconstituents have been the focus of scientific studies for cancer prevention. Among these are polyphenols, which have shown anticancer properties. Pigmented cereals such as blue maize are a rich source of polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of blue maize extract in several cancer cell lines. The total polyphenol content, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of 16 blue corn samples from the Mixteco race were analyzed. From these, the sample with the highest content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity was selected and its anthocyanin fraction was isolated using an amberlite column and analyzed by means of HPLC‐ESI‐MS. The total polyphenol content ranged from 142.8 to 203.2 mg GAE/100g. The total anthocyanin contents varied between 19.02 and 66.92 mg C3G/100g. The antioxidant activity ranged from 18.5 to 27.8 µmol TE/g. The anthocyanin profile showed eight different compounds, mainly acylated anthocyanins. Cytotoxicity of blue corn extract on cancer cell lines was determined at concentrations of 100 and 500 µg/mL using the SRB assay. A cytotoxic effect was mainly observed on SKLU‐1 and HTC‐15 cell lines.
Part of the book: Natural Products and Cancer Drug Discovery
Mexico is regarded as the point of origin and biodiversity of maize, which takes the colors white, yellow, blue, or red. Red maize in particular owes its coloring to a type of polyphenolic compounds known as anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to determine the profile anthocyanin of red maize, as well as their antiproliferative activity on prostate cancer cell line DU145. Three samples of red maize were analyzed. Total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidant activity by DDPH and FRAP were evaluated. The sample of red maize with the highest levels of total polyphenols and monomeric anthocyanins was selected, and its anthocyanin fraction was analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Twenty compounds were detected in the anthocyanin profile, and from these, 12 anthocyanins derived of cyanidin were identified. MTT assay was used to determine the antiproliferative activity of the anthocyanin fraction from red maize at different concentrations (7–1000 μg/mL), and a significant antiproliferative activity was observed at 1000 μg/mL. Microscopy analysis showed that the anthocyanin fraction of red maize induced apoptosis in cell lines DU145. This is the first report showing that anthocyanin fraction of red maize possess antiproliferative activity in the DU145 cell line.
Part of the book: Flavonoids
In Mexico, high incidences of Fusarium affect common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production, reducing grain yields due to seedling death and crop standing reductions. Production of resistant germplasm could be an appropriate strategy for grain yield increasing. Bean breeding programs need the former analysis of plant-pathogen pathosystem to perform the selection of segregating populations with improved resistance to root rot pathogens and the best agroecosystem adaptation. Here, we report our results on characterization of genetic variability patterns of Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli (FSP) from Aguascalientes, México; the analysis of P. vulgaris germplasm reactions to highly and naturally FSP-infested field and controlled conditions; and the identification of genetic basis of resistance to FSP root rot in segregating common bean populations. Significant genetic variability in FSP isolates from Aguascalientes and other regions of México was found. Also, we found high variation on reactions to FSP root rots, resistance was more frequent on black seed-coated beans, and susceptibility was common in pinto beans. Resistance to FSP in BAT 477 seedlings was associated with one quantitative trait loci (QTL).
Part of the book: Fusarium