In recent years, natural products such as dietary phytoconstituents have been the focus of scientific studies for cancer prevention. Among these are polyphenols, which have shown anticancer properties. Pigmented cereals such as blue maize are a rich source of polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Therefore, the aim of this work is to determine the chemical composition and cytotoxic activity of blue maize extract in several cancer cell lines. The total polyphenol content, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity of 16 blue corn samples from the Mixteco race were analyzed. From these, the sample with the highest content of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity was selected and its anthocyanin fraction was isolated using an amberlite column and analyzed by means of HPLC‐ESI‐MS. The total polyphenol content ranged from 142.8 to 203.2 mg GAE/100g. The total anthocyanin contents varied between 19.02 and 66.92 mg C3G/100g. The antioxidant activity ranged from 18.5 to 27.8 µmol TE/g. The anthocyanin profile showed eight different compounds, mainly acylated anthocyanins. Cytotoxicity of blue corn extract on cancer cell lines was determined at concentrations of 100 and 500 µg/mL using the SRB assay. A cytotoxic effect was mainly observed on SKLU‐1 and HTC‐15 cell lines.
Part of the book: Natural Products and Cancer Drug Discovery
Mexico is regarded as the point of origin and biodiversity of maize, which takes the colors white, yellow, blue, or red. Red maize in particular owes its coloring to a type of polyphenolic compounds known as anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to determine the profile anthocyanin of red maize, as well as their antiproliferative activity on prostate cancer cell line DU145. Three samples of red maize were analyzed. Total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidant activity by DDPH and FRAP were evaluated. The sample of red maize with the highest levels of total polyphenols and monomeric anthocyanins was selected, and its anthocyanin fraction was analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. Twenty compounds were detected in the anthocyanin profile, and from these, 12 anthocyanins derived of cyanidin were identified. MTT assay was used to determine the antiproliferative activity of the anthocyanin fraction from red maize at different concentrations (7–1000 μg/mL), and a significant antiproliferative activity was observed at 1000 μg/mL. Microscopy analysis showed that the anthocyanin fraction of red maize induced apoptosis in cell lines DU145. This is the first report showing that anthocyanin fraction of red maize possess antiproliferative activity in the DU145 cell line.
Part of the book: Flavonoids
This chapter is based in the compilation and analysis of different in vitro, preclinical, and clinical studies, which explored the potential beneficial bioactivity of supplementation with berries on some alterations in the central nervous system (CNS). The last section of the chapter describes the possible mechanisms of action of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and other compounds present in berries as well as their relationship with anxiety, depression, and Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD) and their implication in the prevention of cognitive decline and senescence motor functions. Electronic databases as Springer, PubMed, Scopus, and Elsevier were used. Papers were selected by topic specially those related with berries, year of publication, and authors. The present chapter evidenced the potential health effect as neuroprotector of different berries and their bioactive compounds mainly flavonoids, polyphenols, and anthocyanins, on diseases such as anxiety, depression, and Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. In conclusion, for human nutrition berry fruit supplementation might be an excellent source of antioxidant and alternative for prevention and reduction of symptoms in diseases such as anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s.
Part of the book: Behavioral Pharmacology