Human B lymphocytes not only play a critical role in the humoral immunity to generate antibodies, but also are equally important to cellular immunity as B lymphocytes can present antigens to T lymphocytes and can release a range of potential immune-regulating cytokines after stimulations. Human immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells is an essential process in the humoral immunity and the process is complicated and tightly controlled by many regulators. The recent genomic and genetic approaches in CSR identified novel genes that were actively involved in the process. Understanding the roles of the novel genes in CSR will bring new insights into the mechanisms of the process and new potential therapeutic targets for immunoglobulin-related disorders such as allergic asthma and autoimmune diseases.
Part of the book: Gene Expression and Regulation in Mammalian Cells
Gout is a common and complex form of arthritis that is characterized with hyperuricaemia. It is required urate-lowering therapy (ULT) for lifelong management. ULT includes decreasing uric acid product in serum, increasing renal urate excretion and promoting uric acid to allantoin for excretion. Whole genome association studies in gout identified more than 40 genetic loci that influenced the serum uric acid levels. Most associated genes were found to affect renal urate excretion. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics approaches on ULT had revealed several genes that underlined the effectiveness and the adverse events of medications for gout. Together with the researches on epigenetic factors such as DNA methylations, miRNAs; and the discovery of environmental factors such as microbiota and metabolites, the current progress provides the opportunities for personalized management of ULT for treating hyperuricaemia and gout.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Gout