This study investigates the biological response of zirconia/tantalum biocermet materials with laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) generated using a femtosecond laser working at 1030 nm wavelength. LIPSS were formed by laser radiation slightly above the applied threshold fluence. LIPSS features were characterized using techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). LIPSS were generated in this study by applying femtosecond pulses with 500 fs pulse duration at a high-repetition rate to smooth-polished zirconia/tantalum biocermet surfaces, with an original roughness value of 3.8 ± 0.2 and 3.1 ± 0.2 nm, respectively. We have demonstrated in vitro that LIPSS are an efficient option to increase osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) in ZrO2:Ta biocermets. LIPSS created increase cell metabolism statistically (best values in 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay) and decrease inflammatory response to the material (IL-6 and TNF-alpha values). Extracellular matrix production (ECM) is produced in more quantity and cells differentiate to osteoblast easily. These differences are seen from the beginning until the endpoint (day 20).
Part of the book: Laser Ablation
Open fractures are common and their prevalence is increasing in elderly people. The burden of open fractures is high because of economic and social costs. Most open fractures occur in lower limbs. The use of validated protocols, will optimize our outcomes when treating open fractures. The first step began with the proper identification of the fracture characteristics and the hidden soft tissue injury. The use of an adequate and early antibiotic prophylaxis is mandatory and then, we have to perform adequate irrigation and debridement. Finally, we have to decide to temporally fix the fracture or proceed with the definitive fixation method. Recently, the creation of dedicated “orthoplastic” units has increased the outcomes in high-energy tibial fractures. These fractures should be managed in adequate trauma centers that should be used to face all the complications that will appear during the reconstruction procedure because complications can be as high as 50% in high-energy open fractures.
Part of the book: Trauma Surgery