This chapter reviews the laser ablation of delicate organic/biological substances by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). It is shown that direct ablation in this case is possible but sometimes not workable at all in adverse conditions. The considered solution is the protection by a prevalent dissolving/suspending component that can allow for a “shielded” ablation by the frozen solvent followed by its gradual evaporation by melting, evaporation and evacuation by pumping system. We extend the study to the case of non-UV absorbing solvents, e.g., water, when the primary interaction between laser and solute ignites evaporation process at a lower ablation threshold due to reduced pressure inside irradiation chamber. We called this case as “generalized” MAPLE interaction. Relevant examples are provided and critically analyzed in view of potential applications for nanobiomedicine, biosensors, advanced implants and chemical technologies.
Part of the book: Laser Ablation
An effective way of decontamination using optical metamaterials like photonic crystals consisting of glass microspheres or granulated quartz with various geometries is proposed. The efficient decontamination using the evanescent zone of metamaterials opens a new perspective in pathogen decontamination. We propose different topological structures of metamaterials to enlarge the contact surface of ultraviolet radiation with polluted translucent fluids. The approach is based upon the increased transfer of UV radiation via evanescent waves of metamaterials into contaminated translucent fluids. A series of experimental estimations of the decontamination rate of this type of metamaterials have been made. For these investigations, a decontamination core filled up with metamaterials is used through which the contaminated fluid freely flows. Experiments have conclusively proved that evanescent zone of quartz and optical fiber metamaterials can effectively inactivate Coliform (including Escherichia coli), or Enterococcus bacteria, as well as yeast and Kombucha cultures.
Part of the book: Advanced Surface Engineering Research