Part of the book: Waste Water
Volcanic ash-derived soils (VADSs) are of great importance in the agricultural economy of several emerging and developing countries. The surface-charge amphoteric characteristics will confer physical/chemical properties absolutely different to constant-charge soils. This surface reactivity will confer to them a particular behaviour in relation to the herbicide sorption, representing an environmental substrate that may become polluted over time due to intensive agronomic uses. Sorption is a key parameter to evaluate the fate and behaviour of herbicides in volcanic soils. Sorption type and kinetic sorption models are also necessary in order to develop and validate QSAR models to predict pesticide sorption on volcanic soils to prevent potential contamination of water resources. The use of solute sorption mechanism models and QSAR models for pesticide sorption in soils has contributed to a better understanding of the behaviour of pesticides on volcanic soils. This chapter is divided into five sections: Physical/chemical properties of volcanic ash-derived soils; Ionisable and non-ionisable herbicides’ fate and behaviour in soil; Kinetic sorption: mechanisms involved during sorption of ionisable and non-ionisable herbicides on VADS; Sorption of ionisable and non-ionisable herbicides on VADS; and Physical/chemical properties in QSAR models: a mechanistic interpretation.
Part of the book: Advanced Sorption Process Applications
Volcanic ash-derived soils (VADS, variable-charge soils) are predominant in some regions of the world, being of great importance in the agricultural economy of several emerging countries. Their amphoteric surface charge characteristics confer physical/chemical properties different to constant surface charge-soils, showing a particular behavior in relation to the herbicide adsorption kinetics. Volcanic soils represent an environmental substrate that may become polluted over time due to intensive agronomic uses. Solute transport models have contributed to a better understanding of herbicide behavior on variable- and constant-charge soils, being also necessary to evaluate the fate of herbicides and to prevent potential contamination of water resources. The following chapter is divided into four sections: physical/chemical properties of variable and constant-charge soils, kinetic adsorption models frequently used to obtain kinetic parameters of herbicides on soils, solute transport models to describe herbicide adsorption on VADS, and impact of experimental conditions of kinetic batch studies on solute transport mechanisms.
Part of the book: Kinetic Modeling for Environmental Systems