The genus Fusarium is a group of fungi producing several types of toxins with toxicological effect in both humans and animals. Such fungi are commonly found in soils so it can contaminate various types of crops, preferably cereals, leading to significant economic losses. Relative humidity, storage temperature and various handling in cereales increase the possibility of contamination by Fusarium toxins. Cereals naturally have secondary metabolites that may help attenuate contamination by these toxins, but it is necessary to know strategies and mechanisms that generate inactivation mycotoxins. This chapter reviews relevant information about cereal mycotoxin contamination, as well as the production of cereal secondary metabolites as a strategy to reduce the possibility of mycotoxin contamination.
Part of the book: Fusarium
Drug metabolism is a pharmacokinetic process whose main objective is to modify the chemical structure of drugs to easily excretable compounds. This process is carried out through phase I and phase II reactions. The enzymes of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) participate in phase I reactions, and their activity can be inhibited or induced by xenobiotics. The aim of this chapter is to study the clinical relevance of the induction and inhibition of CYP450, by describing the effect that some bioactive compounds present in medicinal plants or foods can modify, either increasing or decreasing the activity of CYP450 enzymes and with it modify the bioavailability and depuration of drugs. Examples will be described on the interaction of medicinal plants and foods of vegetal origin that when combined with some drugs can generate toxicity or therapeutic failure; this will allow gathering relevant information on the adequate pharmacological management in different clinical situations.
Part of the book: Medicinal Chemistry