Structural multilayering and grading has been designed to improve the contact load-bearing resistance of ultrafine-grained materials. The contact load-bearing response and surface damage resistance of multilayered hierarchical structured (MHSed) Ti were evaluated by experimental indentation on the overall loading response in conjunction with detailed computational simulations of local stresses and strain distribution. The combination of a hard outer layer, a gradual transition layer and a compliant core results in reduced indentation depth, but a deeper and more diffuse sub-surface plastic deformation zone, compared to the monolithic nanostructured Ti. The macroscopic indentation resistance of MHSed Ti is controlled by the underlying micromechanics of the multilayered hierarchical structure. The finite element analysis (FEA) revealed the multilayered hierarchical structure offers the effective macroscopic mechanical contact loading resistance, where the indenter increasingly “senses” the more compliant core to bear the deformation as the load increases. The structural multilayering modifies the stress and strain redistribution and effectively reduces the maximum stress concentration within the material. The structural grading provide a transitional junction for stress and plastic deformation redistribution and achieve more gradual stress distributions between component layers which mitigates the interface failure, increases the interfacial toughness, thus providing strong resistance to loading damage.
Part of the book: Contact and Fracture Mechanics
Microstructure evolution within the shear localization areas in a commercial titanium plate subjected to cold rolling was systematically investigated. A shear band with a width of approximately 25 μm was formed. The microstructure inside the shear band was mainly equiaxed nanograins with an average size of 70 nm. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the grain refinement inside the shear band was completely via a shear deformation-induced splitting and breakdown twin lamella process, instead of a nucleation and growth of new grains. The shear localization starts with the formation and multiplication of mechanical twins, which leads to the development of a twin/matrix lamellar structure aligned along the shear direction. The twin/matrix lamellae subsequently undergo gradual splitting and transverse breakdown, giving rise to fine elongated subgrains. The continuing lath breakdown, in combination with grain lateral sliding and lattice rotations, ultimately leads to the formation of a mix of roughly equiaxed, nanosized (sub)grains within the center of macroscopic shear band at large strains.
Part of the book: Nanocrystals and Nanostructures