The public health importance of the endophilic mosquito Aedes aegypti increased dramatically in the recent decade, because it is the vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) fixed on doors and windows, as insecticide-treated screening (ITS), is one innovative approach recently evaluated for Aedes control in South Mexico. From 2009 to 2014, cluster-randomised controlled trials were conducted in Acapulco and Merida. Intervention clusters received Aedes-proof houses (‘Casas a prueba de Aedes’) with ITS and were followed up during 2 years. Overall, results showed significant and sustained reductions on indoor adult vector densities in the treated clusters with ITS after 2 years: ca. 50% on the presence (OR ≤ 0.62, P < 0.05) and abundance (IRR ≤ 0.58, P < 0.05). ITS on doors and windows are ‘user-friendly’ tool, with high levels of acceptance, requiring little additional work or behavioural change by householders. Factors that favoured these interventions were (a) house construction, (b) high coverage achieved due to the excellent acceptance by the community and (c) collaboration of the vector control services; and only some operational complaints relating to screen fragility and the installation process. ITS is a housing improvement that should be part of the current paradigms for urban vector-borne disease control.
Part of the book: Dengue
Mosquito’s resistance to avoiding insecticide-treated surfaces (“excito-repellency”) has two effects: irritation from direct contact with a treated area and repellency as an avoidance response to contact with treated surfaces. Nowadays, this behavior appears to reduce the success of mosquito control programs, particularly those based on insecticide-driven strategies. Different systems have been designed to assess the excito-repellency, evaluating numerous insecticides’ irritants, deterrents, and toxic properties at different concentrations. The information provides valuable insights regarding the patterns of mosquito behavior based on their physiological conditions, such as the age of the mosquitoes and the duration of the tests. However, the physiological processes resulting from chemical stimulus contact “chemoreception”) are still poorly explored and understood. This review provides an overview of insecticide effects on mosquito behavior and describes the mechanisms involved in chemical stimuli uptake, translation, and recognition.
Part of the book: Mosquito Research