The public health importance of the endophilic mosquito Aedes aegypti increased dramatically in the recent decade, because it is the vector of dengue, chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever. The use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) fixed on doors and windows, as insecticide-treated screening (ITS), is one innovative approach recently evaluated for Aedes control in South Mexico. From 2009 to 2014, cluster-randomised controlled trials were conducted in Acapulco and Merida. Intervention clusters received Aedes-proof houses (‘Casas a prueba de Aedes’) with ITS and were followed up during 2 years. Overall, results showed significant and sustained reductions on indoor adult vector densities in the treated clusters with ITS after 2 years: ca. 50% on the presence (OR ≤ 0.62, P < 0.05) and abundance (IRR ≤ 0.58, P < 0.05). ITS on doors and windows are ‘user-friendly’ tool, with high levels of acceptance, requiring little additional work or behavioural change by householders. Factors that favoured these interventions were (a) house construction, (b) high coverage achieved due to the excellent acceptance by the community and (c) collaboration of the vector control services; and only some operational complaints relating to screen fragility and the installation process. ITS is a housing improvement that should be part of the current paradigms for urban vector-borne disease control.
Part of the book: Dengue
House-screening (HS) using fixed-aluminium frames to reduce the risk of indoor infestation with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes as well as the risk of Aedes-transmitted diseases in communities living in endemic areas. However, the success of this approach has been hindered by the elevated cost of the aluminium-based materials as well as their professional installation, which cannot be afforded by people living under vulnerable conditions. Cost-saving strategies such as the use of low-cost materials including wood, PVC, and Velcro are within the list of HS options available and offered by HS businesses and/or Do-it-yourself (DIY) packages verbi gratia ready-made and ready-to-install mosquito-screens. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of low-cost frames constructed with different materials to protect against Ae. aegypti indoor infestation using experimental huts. The efficacy of protection in preventing female mosquito passing inside the huts of any of the options of frames was high (>93%) compared to the control with no-screen. People’s perceptions on the different materials showed the most “popular” alternative was the frame made of wood (62%). All the prototype-frames of HS made of different materials were effective at blocking Ae. aegypti entering-mosquitoes particularly, low-cost options like magnets and Velcro.
Part of the book: Mosquito Research