DNA double-strand break (DSB) is a type of the most critical DNA lesions, and if not repaired promptly, it can result in cell death or a wide variety of genetic alterations including genome instability, large- or small-scale deletions, chromosome loss, loss of heterozygosity, and translocations. DSBs are repaired by double-strand break repair (DSBR), including nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) pathway, and defects in these pathways cause genome instability and promote tumorigenesis. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that the superfamily of deubiquitinases (DUBs) can regulate the action and stability of DNA repair enzymes involving in DSBR via modifying ubiquitination levels, a reversible posttranslational modification pathway. In this review, we will discuss ubiquitination/deubiquitination modification involving in DSBR genes, the role of DUBs in DSBR and corresponding mechanisms, and the potential effects of this modification on human diseases.
Part of the book: Ubiquitination Governing DNA Repair