Starch applications in food systems are mainly influenced by solubility, gelatinization, paste viscosity, digestibility, and retrogradation. These characteristics result from properties such as the size and shape of granules, amylose and amylopectin contents, distribution of polymer chains, degree of crystallinity, and extraction of waste. In beans, the percentage of starch contents on dry basis is between 45 and 60%, being 24–65% amylose. This chapter evaluated the structure of common beans starch granules (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in raw and cooked forms, by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thus it was possible to observe the gelatinization of the starch granules especially in cowpea and carioca beans, as well as the “hard-to-cook” phenomenon in the black beans.
Part of the book: Legume Crops