Dengue virus (DENV) infects humans through the skin. The early infection and encounters between DENV and cutaneous immune and non‐immune cells only recently are under investigation. We have reported DENV‐infected cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs), also keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts permissive to DENV infection. Now, upon cutaneously inoculating fluorescently labeled DENV into immune‐competent mice, we found DENV mostly in dermis from 1 h post‐inoculation. Afterwards, DENV rapidly localized in the subcapsular sinus of draining lymph nodes (DLNs) associated with CD169+ macrophages, suggesting virus travelling through lymph flow. However, DENV association with CD11c+ DCs in the paracortex and T:B border suggests DENV being ferried from the skin to DLNs by DCs too. DENV was not associated with F4/80+ macrophages nor with DEC205+ DCs, but it was inside B cell follicles early after cutaneous inoculation. DENV inside B follicles likely affects the development of humoral responses. Antibody responses deserve very careful scrutiny as neutralizing memory antibodies are crucial to counteract homotypic reinfections whereas non‐neutralizing ones might facilitate heterotypic DENV infection or even Zika infection, another flavivirus. Unravelling the DENV journey from skin to lymph into regional nodes and the cellular compartments will aid to understand the disease, its pathology and how to counteract it.
Part of the book: Dengue
Diseases produced by helminth parasites occur frequently in underdeveloped countries where they present a serious public health problem. At the same time, in these regions, a lower rate of autoimmune and allergic diseases has been observed. Due to these observations, some researchers have proposed that some helminths, such as Trichinella spiralis or its proteins, have strong anti-inflammatory potential, or have assessed them as modulating agents of the immune response. T. spiralis shifts the host immune response from a Th1 profile, characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokines, to a Th2 profile, characterized by the release of different cytokines with anti-inflammatory properties. This parasite has shown high therapeutic potential in a wide variety of disease models. In one of the most promising, the experimental lupus model in mice, the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 and delayed onset of the key clinical features of the experimental lupus model for at least 5 months were observed, when previously parasitized. This is the first study to date that focuses on the use of T. spiralis as an immunomodulator in lupus disease. In conclusion, further study of the immune response generated by the parasite is necessary to advance the development of new therapies for inflammatory diseases.
Part of the book: Parasitic Helminths and Zoonoses