Neonatal tumors encompass a group of heterogeneous neoplasms that demonstrate anatomic locations, behavior patterns, histologic features, and treatment responses that are distinct from neoplasms found in older children. The majority of neonatal tumors are benign, with malignant lesions accounting for only 2% of childhood cancers. However, histologically benign tumors can lead to detrimental effects on the fetus and newborn due to their size and location in relation to vital structures. An understanding of the incidence, appearance, and typical locations of neonatal tumors can provide important diagnostic information and guide treatment decisions. Although surgical intervention is the mainstay of therapy for many neonatal tumors, it is important to recognize that some lesions will regress spontaneously, whereas others may respond to noninvasive treatment modalities. In this chapter, we explore the epidemiology of neonatal tumors and provide a location-based classification schema to aid in diagnosis. A summary of the presentation, diagnosis, and management of the most common neonatal tumors is provided as well.
Part of the book: Pediatric and Neonatal Surgery