With the increasing incidence of human cancer and continued difficulty in treating metastatic tumors, there is an urgent need to identify biomarkers for tumors with poor outcome and novel therapeutic targets. Many therapeutic targets have been found in recent years. One promising biomarker and therapeutic target that is valuable for human tumor is nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2, Nrf2). In this chapter, we will discuss the regulatory mechanisms and conflicting roles of Nrf2 during different stages of tumor development as well as its involvement in the drug resistance and hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. We will also discuss various positive and negative modulators of Nrf2 as reference to their potential utility as study tools and leads for further clinical development.
Part of the book: The Transcription Factor Nrf2