Being the central regulator of oxidative status of the cell, NRF2 must be regulated so that its activity can be rapidly and strongly induced when needed and quickly suppressed when not. Moreover, for the cell, NRF2 means much more than just antioxidant defense. Numerous general functions rely on NRF2 and related factors. All this implies that the NRF2 pathway has peculiar and powerful mechanisms of control of its activity. To a great extent, these mechanisms are based on feed-forward and feed-back circuits. These circuits, more than a dozen, are in the focus of this chapter.
Part of the book: The Transcription Factor Nrf2
Systemic biomarkers (i.e. biomarkers of functioning of cellular pathways) offer a broad spectrum of diagnostic capabilities. There are several approaches to using systemic biomarkers that derive from exact needs of a researcher or a clinical specialist. First, analyzing a multifunctional and multi-systemic pathway in circulating cells (e.g. leukocytes) allows to gather generalized information on functioning of the organism. Second, there are numerous pathways that, even still in circulating cells, allow to assess risks of developing or stage of development of numerous diseases, including the leaders of non-infection diseases mortality—cardiovascular diseases. Third, biopsy specimens can readily be used to assess the exact signaling type of a disease (especially cancer) thus helping in selecting the best treatment option. Due to unique properties of the human oxidative status pathways that are discussed in the present chapter, diagnostics specialists are now acquiring an all-in-one toolbox for profiling and detecting almost any non-infectious and a broad range of infectious diseases. In addition to properties of the human oxidative status pathways opening these possibilities, this chapter considers exact systemic biomarkers deriving from this approach, reveals some examples of usage of the resulting diagnostic technology and provides instances of successful clinical application of the systemic biomarker approach.
Part of the book: Biomarker