While surgical resection and chemotherapy have remained mainstays in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver cancers, various minimally invasive techniques have been developed to treat patients for whom traditional approaches either are not available or have failed. Percutaneous ablation techniques such as radiofrequency, microwave, cryoablation, and irreversible electroporation are considered as potentially curative treatments in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma with early-stage tumors. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and radioembolization with yttrium-90 (Y-90) are palliative treatments that have improved survival in patients with unresectable disease. In this chapter, we discuss these minimally invasive techniques, the criteria for selecting appropriate candidates for treatment, and potential limitations to their use.
Part of the book: Updates in Liver Cancer