Due to integrated circuit technology scaling, a type of radiation effects called single event upsets (SEUs) has become a major concern for static random access memories (SRAMs) and thus for SRAM‐based field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). These radiation effects are characterized by altering data stored in SRAM cells without permanently damaging them. However, SEUs can lead to unpredictable behavior in SRAM‐based FPGAs. A new hardening technique compatible with the current FPGA design workflows is presented. The technique works at the cell design level, and it is based on the modulation of cell transistor channel width. Experimental results show that to properly harden an SRAM cell, only some transistors have to be increased in size, while others need to be minimum sized. So, with this technique, area can be used in the most efficient way to harden SRAMs against radiation. Experimental results on a 65‐nm complementary metal‐oxide‐semiconductor (CMOS) SRAM demonstrate that the number of SEU events can be roughly reduced to 50% with adequate transitory sizing, while area is kept constant or slightly increased.
Part of the book: Field