Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the most important pest insects of forest plantations established on clear-cut areas, and Hylobius abietis is a pest insect of great economic importance in Europe. Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets established on sandy soils or postfire areas can be severely impacted by Cneorhinus plagiatus and Brachyderes incanus. Young pine forests weakened by biotic and abiotic factors are particularly susceptible to Pissodes castaneus. Buds and shoots of P. sylvestris trees are mainly damaged by Lepidoptera larvae. For many years, chemical treatments have been the main way of protecting forests against insects. At present, to reduce the pollution of forest environments with insecticides, the strategy of integrated pest management (IPM) was put into practice. It involves prophylactic measures to increase plant resistance to insect attacks and to select appropriate control methods based on a multistep decision support system (DSS). Nonchemical control measures aim at collecting pest insects in traps fitted with attractants and biological methods, mainly based on entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and wood-decomposing fungi. Chemical insecticides are used only in cases of high threats to reforestation stands. This paper presents the state of knowledge concerning pest insect management in forest plantations in Europe, with particular emphasis on insects occurring in Poland.
Part of the book: Biological Control of Pest and Vector Insects