Semiochemicals and Their Potential Use in Pest Management
This chapter gives an account on the general concept of insect semiochemicals, their definitions, classification, formulation, utilization in integrated pest management programs, and the shortcomings of their application. The different semiochemically based insect management techniques, such as mass trapping, mating disruption, and attract-and-kill, are highlighted. The chapter also summarizes a case study from 7-year research on semiochemicals of the invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.
Part of the book: Biological Control of Pest and Vector Insects
Integrated Insect Pest Management
Insect pests cause substantial losses to food and fiber crops worldwide. Additionally, they vector human and domestic animal diseases. The dependence on pesticides as a sole method of control has resulted in the development of insect resistance and negative effects on human health, natural enemies, and the environment. The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) originated almost 60 years ago in response to these negative impacts of pesticides. Currently, IPM is a robust paradigm of pest control around the globe. This chapter reviews the history of IPM, its main principles, decision-making rules, the components, and main tactical methods used. Innovative tactical methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT), incompatible insect technique (IIT), and push-pull strategy are discussed. Moreover, challenges of implementation and future prospects of IPM are highlighted.
Part of the book: Pests Control and Acarology
Insect Pest Management in Organic Farming System
Due to the regulations of organic farming, few options remain for organic farmers to manage pests and diseases in their crops compared to conventional farming. However, major pests could still be managed through manipulation of the agroecosystem processes in advantage of the crops and disadvantage of pests. The limited number of active plant protection substances authorized for use in organic farming can provide support to natural and biological control agents in suppression of pests and diseases. This chapter highlights the principles and strategies of crop protection in organic farming, the cultural practices adopted, the active substances allowed for use to suppress pests, and the impacts on faunal and floral biodiversity. A case study of organic date palm cultivation is discussed.
Part of the book: Multifunctionality and Impacts of Organic and Conventional Agriculture
Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae): An Invasive Insect Pest Threatening the World Tomato Production
The South American tomato pinworm or tomato leaf miner (TLM), Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a serious invasive and destructive insect pest of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) worldwide. The moth can cause 100% damage in tomato crop in both greenhouses and open fields if control measures are not carried out. Due to the high reproduction potential, dispersal ability, and tolerance to environmental conditions, the TLM invaded most tomato-producing countries in Europe, Africa, and Asia. The tomato leaf miner originated in South America and was first introduced in Spain in 2006 and from where it spread to other part of the world. This chapter consolidates the rich literature on the pest with emphasis on invasion history, economic significance, and possible management options adopted worldwide.
Part of the book: Invasive Species
Recent Trends in the Early Detection of the Invasive Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)
Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), is one of the most invasive pest species that poses a serious threat to date palm and coconut palm cultivation as well as the ornamental Canary Island palm. RPW causes massive economic losses in the date palm production sector worldwide. The most important challenge of RPW detection in the early stages of an infestation is the presence of a few externally visible signs. Infested palm shows visible signs when the infestation is more advanced; in this case, the rescuing of infested palms is more complicated. Early detection is a useful tool to eradicate and control RPW successfully. Until now, the early detection techniques of RPW rely mainly on visual inspection and pheromone trapping. Several methods to detect RPW infestation have recently emerged. These include remote sensing, highly sensitive microphones, thermal sensors, drones, acoustic sensors, and sniffer dogs. The main objective of this chapter is to provide an overview of the modern methods for early detection of the RPW and discuss the most important RPW detection technologies that are field applicable.
Part of the book: Invasive Species
Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Global Invasion, Current Management Options, Challenges and Future Prospects
The red palm weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as the Asian palm weevil is a key pest of palms (Arecaceae) in diverse agro-ecosystems the world over. During March 2017, the Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN through its ‘Rome Declaration’ called for the urgent need to combat RPW by collaborative efforts and commitments at the country, regional and global levels to stop the spread of this devastating pest. There exist gaps and challenges in almost all the components of the current RPW-IPM strategy, particularly with regard to early detection, developing and implementing phytosanitary measures, lack of effective biological control agents in the field and poor farmer participation in the control programmes, which have made RPW control and eradication extremely difficult. This chapter gives an overview of the global invasion, current management options, challenges and future prospects for its effective control.
Part of the book: Invasive Species
Impacts of Organic Farming on Insects Abundance and Diversity View all chapters
Organic farming encourages maximum utilization of the natural biological processes to manage the farm in terms of soil fertilization and pest control, which implies using none or less synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and plant and animal growth-promoting substances. All these practices increase arthropod diversity, particularly soil-dwelling insects. Intercropping, cover crops, and hedges, which are common practices in organic fields, provide alternative habitats for arthropod communities. The refugia also provide a good source of food for pollinators in terms of pollen grains and nectar. The interactions among the different plant and animal taxa (weeds, birds, mammals) that are found in the organic farming ecosystem have a great impact on insects’ abundance and diversity. This chapter summarizes the impacts of the organic farming system on the abundance and diversity of insects. The role of organic farming in mitigating the impact of agriculture intensification, urbanization, deforestation, and climate change on global insects’ decline and diversity loss is discussed.
Part of the book: Global Decline of Insects