Currently, the fossil fuel sources are the major contributors to the world's energy mix. However, these conventional energy sources are depleting very fast due to their finite nature and extensive uses. An addition to their finite nature, environmental problems related to their uses are getting progressively worse and worse, initiating challenging debates for scientific communities. Biodiesel, a renewable fuel, has shown promising prospects due to its strong socioeconomic benefits and motivations in most of the countries of the world. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysts are strongly recommended for biodiesel production from different feedstocks to simplify the process. This review highlights the challenges and opportunities associated with the heterogeneous catalysts and some recommendations to design an efficient bifunctional heterogeneous catalyst for economical biodiesel production from waste cooking oil.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Bioenergy and Biofuels
Pakistan’s energy is mainly dependent on the imported fossil fuels as the explored fossil fuels of the country are insufficient to meet the country’s current energy needs. Meanwhile, these fossil fuels have negative environmental consequences and are too expensive to electrify remote areas. To address the country’s serious energy shortages, Pakistan’s Alternative Energy Development Board (AEDB) has suggested to introduce energy mix to meet the increasing energy demand and fuel the economy. Renewable energy endorsing unique environmentally friendly nature, constant supply, wider availability and ease of integration into existing infrastructure. Biodiesel is considered the best and most easily accessible source of energy among all renewable energy resources. However, there is still substantial room for development of renewable energies in Pakistan. This literature review examines the availability of biomass resources in Pakistan and their potential for meeting the country’s rapidly growing energy demand, boosting Country economy and creates new employments in the near future.
Part of the book: Diesel Engines and Biodiesel Engines Technologies