Laser ablation is induced by a heating process of materials through the absorption of laser light and results in an explosive expansion of materials. For materials located in liquid, in contrast to those in vacuum, laser ablation proceeds under rather mild conditions via a cycle of heating and cooling by mediated solvent; therefore, it is applicable for organic solids to fragment into nanoparticles. Alternatively, for effective light absorbers, the irradiated site becomes the reaction centre of a photochemical reaction even in liquids, resulting in hydrogen gas generation. In this chapter, two topics of laser ablation in the liquid phase are presented: nanoparticle formation of organic materials and hydrogen gas generation from solid carbon in water. Thereby, the extended abilities of liquid laser ablation to transform ordinary materials into functional ones are introduced.
Part of the book: Applications of Laser Ablation
Diamond attracts increasing attentions as a semiconductor, since high-purity synthesized diamonds have become commercially available in these decades. For appropriate design of any devices, the basic carrier transport parameters should be known. However, it has been difficult to determine carrier parameters in diamond, because the controlled doping and Ohmic contact formation have been hard to achieve. In this chapter, a modern experimental method to measure basic carrier parameters, such as the effective mass, scattering times, and mobility of intrinsic diamonds, is introduced. The method, i.e., nanosecond time-resolved cyclotron resonance (TRCR), is applicable to optically injected carriers in intrinsic diamonds without wire connection. Following the key technique of optical carrier injection, detailed analysis methods for the cyclotron resonance spectra are introduced. The extracted basic parameters of diamond are summarized in comparison to those of silicon and germanium in the same group-IV semiconductor family. This is worthy for triggering further ideas in application-oriented researches using widespread materials.
Part of the book: Some Aspects of Diamonds in Scientific Research and High Technology