Nowadays, adhesive industry is growing, and its development will be important in a short future because it offers good returns, and in some cases it is a better option for packaging and sealing with advantages in prices, productivity and weight reduction. In terms of joining and/or sealing, adhesives are well positioned among joining systems; however, knowledge about adhesives is need for their efficient use and only through proper design of the union can be achieved satisfactory results. In this chapter, a development of a formulation of pressure-sensitive adhesive based on styrene-butadiene copolymers using a reactive resin is reported. Non-aromatic solvents were used in adhesive formulation with the aim of avoiding the emission of harmful solvents into the Atmosphere, and the adequate combination and amount of solvents were found. The effect of addition of a phenolic resin in the adhesive formulation as a crosslinking agent was evaluated. By means Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), the crosslinking reaction was also studied. The performance of adhesive formulation was evaluated by means of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA).
Part of the book: Adhesives
The formation of scale/solids deposits inside the pipelines is a frequent problem in the petrochemical industry. These scales can be organic as the asphaltenes and inorganic as the accumulations of salts, which apart from blocking the inside of the pipes can also cause a change in the integrity of the steel. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid the conditions where deposition occurs, together with chemical and mechanical methods of remediation to mitigate the deposition. In this work we intend to use conductive polymers in order to inhibit the deposition of asphaltenes on carbon steel surfaces, by using polypyrrole (PPy) as material capable of conducting electrical current. The electrodeposition of PPy on carbon steel were performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). The results showed that under certain experimental conditions it is possible to make a PPy film with adequate characteristics. Important factors were the grip and electrochemical stability of the formed film on steel, which depends on the electrosynthesis technique and in some cases favoured by a pre-treatment with a 10% HNO3 solution applied to the steel prior to electropolymerization. The PPy films deposited with pre-treatment completely covered the steel surface and showed better stability, adherence and generated a hydrophobic material.
Part of the book: Recent Insights in Petroleum Science and Engineering
A series of styrene-butadiene (SB) elastomer/thermoplastic starch (TPS)/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) composites were modified including chicken feathers in its formulation, which have the main component keratin. The composites were prepared by means of melt blending, and their chemical interactions were evaluated by means of infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their thermal properties as Tg values were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal stability using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and viscoelastic properties with dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The styrene content in SB was changed in 3 levels, and chicken feather content also changed in 3 levels. It was identified that Tg value in composites decreases that is attributed to the styrene content in elastomer and that the chicken feather improved the storage modulus of composite. The thermal stability of composites also was affected by the presence of chicken feathers due its good thermal properties.
Part of the book: Applications of Modified Starches