Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer‐related death worldwide; treatment algorithms include surgery, chemotherapy and targeted therapies. Immunotherapy has recently emerged as an effective treatment approach in several types of cancer, including non–small cell lung cancer, melanoma and kidney cancer. In CRC, novel immune‐checkpoint inhibitors such as anti‐CTLA4 and PD1/PDL1 monoclonal antibodies have shown limited efficacy, although ongoing trials in mismatch repair‐deficient CRC have shown significant and promising results. Here, we review the role of immune‐microenvironment in colorectal cancer and current clinical data about therapeutic activity of immunotherapy in the treatment of CRC.
Part of the book: Colorectal Cancer