Biofilm is characterized by a bacterial population firmly adhered to a surface involved by a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. These communities provide longer survival and resistance to adverse conditions such as presence of antibiotics and disinfectants. Various foodborne microorganisms are capable of forming such structures, including Salmonella and Campylobacter, which are the major contaminants at the poultry industry. This biomass can affect the water transport system and pipes, and once the agent is established at the industry, it can form biofilms in any processing area. There are intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms, and also molecular aspects involved in the biofilm formation. The adoption of several strategies may exhibit effectiveness to prevent the cell adhesion, such as the use of surfaces resistant to biofilm formation. In case of preexisting biofilms, there are physical, chemical, and biological methods used to control and eliminate them. Nanotechnology has emerged as another effective measure as nanometals affect the essential activities of microorganisms. These findings highlight the difficulty in controlling biofilms, due to the strategies used by these agents to adapt and survive in sessile form, causing recurring contamination throughout the poultry chain production, deterioration in the final product and infections in the human host.
Part of the book: Poultry Science