The recycling of waste generated by industrial production processes is a topic of considerable environmental and economic interest. The minimization of waste disposal, avoiding its direct release into the environment, generates environmental benefits for industries in addition to the manufacture of the main product. Some of these wastes, measured by their radioactive element content, may be considered as naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Two of these NORMs are phosphogypsum (PG) and ilmenite mud (IM) come from the fertilizer industry and TiO2 pigment industry, respectively. This chapter discusses the viability of valorization and/or recycling of PG and IM in the manufacture of sulfur polymer cement/concrete, Portland cement, and ceramic materials.
Part of the book: Management of Hazardous Wastes