This chapter shows a methodology to accomplish the real‐time reconfiguration of distribution networks considering distributed generation in normal operating conditions. The availability of the wind power generation, solar photovoltaic power generation, and hydroelectric power generation is considered in the reconfiguration procedure. The real‐time reconfiguration methodology is based on the branch‐exchange technique and assumes that only remote‐controlled switches are considered in the analysis. The multicriteria analysis, analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, is used to determine the best switching sequence. The developed algorithms are integrated into a supervisory system, which allows real‐time communication with the network equipment. The methodology is verified in a real network of a power utility in Brazil with different typical daily demand curves and distributed generation scenarios.
Part of the book: Real-time Systems
This chapter aims to provide an overview of the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and discharging strategies in the electric power system and the smart cities, as well as an application benefiting both consumers and power utility. The electric vehicle technology will be introduced. Then, the main impacts, benefits and challenges related to this technology will be discussed. Following, the role of the vehicles in smart cities will be presented. Next, the major methods and strategies for charging and discharging of plug-in electric vehicles available in the literature will be described. Finally, a new strategy for the intelligent charging and discharging of electric vehicles will be presented, which aims to benefit the consumer and the power utility.
Part of the book: Smart Cities Technologies