Advances in developmental research have allowed for the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells into various somatic cells in vitro. Recently, it was revealed that the aggregation of pluripotent stem cells or their derivatives during differentiation in three-dimensional (3D) cultures with collagen gel could mimic the process of spontaneous organogenesis in vitro as mimicking proper development in vivo. These methods are thought to be useful for monitoring the progress of organ formation and disease physiology, as could be done in an experimental animal. Here, we introduce a recently established method for stomach lineage differentiation from pluripotent stem cells with Matrigel-based 3D culture leading to stomach development. This method induces embryonic stem cell (ES cell) aggregates to spontaneously self-organize into stomach tissue; therefore, it has potential for modeling stomach organogenesis and development in vitro. We further discuss the ability of these in vitro stomach tissues to serve as a new model for gastric disease.
Part of the book: Pluripotent Stem Cells