One of the major obstacles preventing a more widespread application of membrane technology is the fact that the filtration performance inevitably decreases with filtration time. The understanding of causes of flux decline and the ability of predicting the flux performance is crucial for more extensive membrane applications. Therefore, this review focused on the analysis of the interrelated dynamics of membrane fouling and mass transport in the filtration/separation process. Furthermore, findings from various studies undertaken by many researchers to investigate various aspects of these complex phenomena, were analyzed and discussed. These previous studies form the foundation essential for the alleviation of adverse effect of membrane fouling and emphasize the fact that the development of a complex overlapping approach is needed. Investigations of the mechanisms of mass transfer in low and high pressure membranes, analyses of diffusion mechanisms in the membrane pore together with identifications of transport resistances resulting from membrane fouling will allow for a comprehensive understanding and in-depth knowledge of the fouling phenomenon and applicable mass transfer mechanisms.
Part of the book: Mass Transfer
The global agricultural sector consumes a large amount of fresh water for irrigation. Less than half of agricultural wastewater is properly treated before discharging to environment or recycling. Treatment of agricultural wastewater for reuse in irrigation can alleviate burden on water resources as well as protect the environment from detrimental effects caused by various organics, pesticides, and soluble ions in the wastewater stream. This work reviews several current membrane technologies that are applied at removing the pollutants in agricultural wastewater. Subsequently, several strategies to further improve membranes’ performance are highlighted. The advancement of materials science at the nanometer scale can assist the fabrication of membranes with higher selectivity of pollutant removal, higher permeate flux, and lower membrane fouling.
Part of the book: Advances in Membrane Technologies