For a fungal pathogen to successfully infect, colonize and spread inside a susceptible host, it must have overcome the host immune responses. The early recognition of the fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPS) by the host’s pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) results in the establishment of anti-fungal immunity. Although, our immune system has evolved several processes to combat these pathogens both at the innate and adaptive immune levels. These organisms have developed various escape strategies to evade the recognition by the host\'s innate immune components and thus interfering with host immune mechanisms. In this chapter, we will summarize the major PRRs involved in sensing fungal PAMPS and most importantly the fungal tactics to escape the host\'s innate immune surveillance and protective mechanisms.
Part of the book: Fungal Reproduction and Growth
Small ruminants, especially goats, play an important role in the livestock economy of the world. Parasitism is one of the major problems facing goat populations around the world and is responsible for production losses. To control these kinds of losses and improve production, a timely diagnosis of parasitic infection is crucial. The improvement and development of conventional and molecular diagnostic tests help a lot with the early detection of parasitic infections. Strategies to use different control measures like chemotherapy, phytotherapy, pasture management, the use of bioactive crops, biological control measures, and the development of vaccines also help to improve the health and production of goats.
Part of the book: Goat Science