Part of the book: Insecticides
Malaria is a major contributor to the global disease burden and a significant impediment to socio-economic development in resource-poor countries. In contrast to improved trends of malaria morbidity and mortality in some parts of the world, malaria has remained a life threatening disease in many other regions including East Africa because of factors such as weak health systems, growing drug and insecticide resistance, ecological change, climate anomalies, socio-economic factors and changes in land use patterns. Ongoing malaria vector control strategies rely mainly on the use of indoor residual spraying (IRS) and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) which are the primary intervention strategies to reduce malaria burden. The current success in reducing malaria related morbidity and mortality has led to the optimism that elimination of the disease as a public health problem may be a realistic objective. Efforts during the last decades enabled access to ITNs in sub-Saharan Africa protecting millions of people at risk of malaria. The number of countries that employed IRS as a vector control strategy increased almost by two fold and the percentage of households owing at least one ITN in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to increase from time to time. Currently, all ITNs are treated with pyrethroids while IRS depends on pyrethroids, DDT and recently on carbamates. Despite IRS and ITNs are known in reducing malaria incidence, insecticide resistance in malaria vectors threatens the success of malaria control program. Resistance to insecticides has occurred in most arthropod vectors with different mechanisms. If the current trends of increased insecticide resistance continue, it may jeopardise the efficacy of current vector control tools. Given the limited choice of available insecticides, i.e., only 12 insecticides belonging to 4 classes of insecticides (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates), resistance to these insecticides has become a limiting factor for current efforts to sustain control. Currently, no other insecticide class with similar efficacy has been approved by WHOPES. The development of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors has been attributed to the prolonged use of insecticides for IRS and high coverage of ITNs/LLINs. The recent use of pyrethroids for indoor residual spraying is likely to have enhanced the selection pressure for insecticide resistance alleles among East African vector populations. Moreover, mosquitoes breeding in agricultural habitats are exposed to sub lethal doses of pesticides used in agriculture. Since currently recommended insecticides for IRS or ITNs were developed with similar active ingredients of pesticides used for agricultural pest control, their extensive and widespread use to boost agricultural productivity is believed to foster insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. There is strong evidence on the emergence of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids in the major malaria vectors in East Africa however, current information on resistance status of the malaria vectors in different areas of the sub-region is scarce. Genes conferring resistance to malaria vectors, including kdr, super kdr and acetylcholinesterase mutations and metabolic resistance are not mapped. The frequency and spatial distribution of East and West African kdr mutations and their association with the phenotypic resistance in East Africa is less understood. The bioassay results after WHO diagnostic tests in different East African malaria vector populations against insecticides used in public health is not well documented. In conclusion, planning and implementing insecticide resistance monitoring and management strategy should be part of the vector control program either for pre-emptive action without waiting for the development of resistance or to slowdown the spread of resistance in malaria vectors in the sub-region.
Part of the book: Insecticides Resistance
Disease vectors remain a major public health challenge in spite of efforts done to control across Tanzania. Different disease vectors have been controlled and efforts are on to eradicate them but challenges are still emerging and managed. In spite of all these success, different disease vectors have been observed to have developed resistance to all classes of insecticides used in public health practices in Tanzania.Resistance reports to main different vectors have been coming throughout Tanzania. The resistance of vectors to insecticides has been of different mechanisms depending on species, insecticides and mechanisms of action of the pesticides. Social economic factors and housing style still a major factor for the distribution and foci of vector abundance. The impact of public health intervention has been observed but still disease vector existence is noticed. Careful monitoring of the public health priorities for disease vectors control should be rethought to keep the elimination track live. Different tools such as insecticides use, understanding control measures, vector distribution and human lifestyle can lead to reduced burden caused by disease vectors. This chapter has described mosquitoes, tsetse flies, soft ticks, blackflies, and houseflies in terms of distribution, abundance, control and challenges of eradication in Tanzania.
Part of the book: Biological Control of Pest and Vector Insects
Aedes aegypti (Stegomyia) has been human vectors for many human diseases globally. In recent years, dengue virus has been diagnosed in different regions such as Asia and Latin America vectored by Aedes spp. mosquitoes. Dengue cases have been reported again in the several parts of African and other continental hospital. The different types of breeding sites have been found to be abundant in both urban and rural areas. The abundance of adult Ae. aegypti and habitat productivity in different settings escalates the risk of dengue transmission if viruses are found in asymptomatic population. The insecticide resistance has been found to occur in the wild population of Aedes aegypti to insecticides commonly used for indoor residual spray and long-lasting insecticidal net treatments. The control of human vector population is still a challenge as the vector has a diurnal feeding and outdoor resting behavior. Environmental management is still the best practice to be adopted in many countries for Aedes aegypti control. The currently discovered dengue vaccine might be an immediate arsenal for the community immunization.
Part of the book: Dengue Fever