Part of the book: Methylation
Liquid biopsies contain numerous proteins coming from extracellular vesicles (EVs), be it microvesicles or exosomes, released by both normal and tumour cells, as well as the presence of any circulating tumour cells (CTCs). Such proteins can be used as biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognostic assessment, disease progression monitoring, therapy selection and treatment response, particularly in oncology. EVs have been identified as mediators of cell-to-cell communication in both normal and pathological conditions and suggested to play a role in promoting and maintaining cancer dissemination and progression by altering the tumour microenvironment through immune suppression, angiogenesis and metastasis. One class of proteins garnering particular interest are extracellular heat shock proteins (HSPs) (secreted despite no consensus secretory sequence), and their post-translational modifications (PTMs), which are thought to act as key players in intercellular crosstalk and activation of signalling pathways during stress conditions. This review will focus on how characterising and quantifying these proteins can indicate the condition of the physiological system in a variety of pathological contexts.
Part of the book: Liquid Biopsy
Emerging evidence indicates that among the various pregnancy complications, pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) seem to have, at least in part, shared underlying ethiologies. Apart from sharing numerous risk factors, it has been shown that the rate of pre-eclampsia is influenced by the presence and severity of GDM, with hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance and the biochemical changes this brings about (angiogenic imbalance, oxidative stress and inflammation), playing some role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction leading to the development of pre-eclampsia. However, so far the biochemical mechanisms underlying and linking these two conditions is still not properly understood. The altered physiological parameters, dysregulation of potential protein biomarkers and DNA-related changes (mutations, methylations, miRNAs) will be combined in this review to explore possible underlying mechanisms.
Part of the book: Prediction of Maternal and Fetal Syndrome of Preeclampsia