Part of the book: Etiology and Pathophysiology of Parkinson's Disease
There is substantial interindividual variability in the efficacy and tolerability of anticancer drugs. Such differences can be greater between individuals of different ethnicities. The clinical studies demonstrate that individuals from Asia (East Asia) are more susceptible to the effects of platinum-containing chemotherapies than their Western counterparts. To determine whether population-related genomics (i.e., frequencies of DNA polymorphisms) contribute to differences in patient outcomes, polymorphisms in 109 genes involved mainly in xenobiotic metabolism, DNA repair, the cell cycle, and apoptosis were tested in Russian (Caucasians) and Yakut (North Asians) ovarian cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Totally, 232 polymorphisms were genotyped in individual DNA samples using conventional PCR and arrayed primer extension technology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 30 genes were found to be associated with one or more of clinical end points (i.e., tumor response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and side effects). However, all associations between SNPs and clinical outcomes were specific for each of ethnic group studied. These findings let us to propose the existence of distinctive ethnic-related characteristics in molecular mechanisms determining the sensitivity of patients to platinum drug effects.
Part of the book: Ovarian Cancer
Ischemic brain stroke is one of the most serious and socially important medical conditions. Transcriptome analysis is a prospective approach to the study of the mechanisms of brain functioning, both under normal conditions and in ischemia. In addition to mRNA encoding proteins, the study of noncoding RNAs in ischemia has exceptional importance for the development of new strategies for neuroprotection. Of greatest interest are microRNAs (miRNAs) and circular RNAs (circRNAs). circRNAs have a closed structure and predominantly brain-specific expression. They can interact with miRNAs, diminish their activity, and thereby inhibit miRNA-mediated repression of mRNA. Recently, it has become clear that the analysis of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA interactions is an important requirement for the detailed study of the mechanisms of damage and regeneration during ischemia. This chapter reviews the most recent data on the role of circRNAs, miRNAs, mRNAs, and their interactions in brain cells under normal conditions and in cerebral ischemia.
Part of the book: Non-Coding RNAs