Retraction and Correction Policy

IntechOpen implements a robust policy to minimize and deal with instances of fraud or misconduct. As part of our general commitment to transparency and openness, and in order to maintain high scientific standards, we have a well-defined editorial policy regarding Retractions and Corrections. 

IntechOpen’s Retraction and Correction Policy has been developed in accordance with the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) publication guidelines relating to scientific misconduct and research ethics:


A Retraction of a Chapter will be issued by the Academic Editor, either following an Author’s request to do so or when there is a 3rd party report of scientific misconduct. Upon receipt of a report by a 3rd party, the Academic Editor will investigate any allegations of scientific misconduct, working in cooperation with the Author(s) and their institution(s).

A formal Retraction will be issued when there is clear and conclusive evidence of any of the following:

  • Data fabrication
  • Data recycling in a purportedly original research article
  • Severe plagiarism - whether or not the plagiarism is to be deemed severe will be determined by the Academic Editor and verified by plagiarism checking software
  • Double publication
  • Copyright infringement - for example, if a Chapter uses copyrighted figures without permission.
  • Unreliable findings
  • Unethical research practices
  • Any other practice or act considered potentially harmful to the scientific community.

Publishing of a Retraction Notice will adhere to the following guidelines:

  1. All relevant bibliographic information about a retracted Chapter will be given in the title.
  2. A Retraction Notice will be published as a regular book Chapter and will be given its own Chapter number.
  •  Authors shall be required to approve a proposed retraction of their Chapter. If Authors maintain that their Chapter should not be retracted, the Academic Editor may issue a Statement of Concern (see 2. below).


  • Additionally, a Chapter retracted on grounds of copyright infringement (e.g. double publication) may be Removed by the publisher should the original copyright owner request such action. A Chapter retracted on grounds of its potential to harm the scientific community, for example, when a Chapter is defamatory in nature, may also be subject to removal.
  • No formal Removal Notice will be published but a notice citing the reason for removal will be prominently displayed in place of a retracted and subsequently removed Chapter.
  • Chapters published due to inadvertent production mistakes shall be canceled and the cancellation notice will be published.


A Statement of Concern detailing alleged misconduct will be issued by the Academic Editor or publisher following a 3rd party report of scientific misconduct when:

  • Authors refuse to approve a retraction proposed by the Academic Editor
  • There is inconclusive evidence of scientific misconduct
  • Authors and their respective institutions fail or refuse to provide adequate assistance in an investigation
  • The publication of a Statement of Concern will adhere to the Retraction Notice guidelines outlined above   
  • An article PDF for which a Statement of Concern is published will remain available online without being edited or watermarked

IntechOpen believes that the number of occasions on which a Statement of Concern is issued will be very few in number. In all cases when such a decision has been taken by the Academic Editor the decision will be reviewed by another editor to whom the author can make representations.


A Correction will be issued by the Academic Editor when:

  • Only a small portion of a Chapter is flawed in a way that does not severely affect any findings.
  • It is determined that the scientific community would be better served by a Correction rather than a Retraction.
  • Corrections will be issued in one of two distinct forms -- ERRATUM or CORRIGENDUM, depending on the origin of a mistake.

3.1. ERRATUM     

An Erratum will be issued by the Academic Editor when it is determined that a mistake in a Chapter originates from the production process handled by the publisher.

A published Erratum will adhere to the Retraction Notice publishing guidelines outlined above.


A Corrigendum will be issued by the Academic Editor when it is determined that a mistake in a Chapter is a result of an Author’s miscalculation or oversight. A published Corrigendum will adhere to the Retraction Notice publishing guidelines outlined above.


IntechOpen wishes to emphasize that the final decision on whether a Retraction, Statement of Concern, or a Correction will be issued rests with the Academic Editor. The publisher is obliged to act upon any reports of scientific misconduct in its publications and to make a reasonable effort to facilitate any subsequent investigation of such claims.

In the case of Retraction or removal of the Work, the publisher will be under no obligation to refund the APC.

The general principles set out above apply to Retractions and Corrections issued in all IntechOpen publications.

Any suggestions or comments on this Policy are welcome and may be sent to    

Policy last updated: 2017-09-11