Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Prospects of Cassava Development in Indonesia in Supporting Global Food Availability in Future

Written By

Fachrur Rozi, Dian Adi Anggraeni Elisabeth, Ruly Krisdiana, Adri Adri, Yardha Yardha and Yanti Rina

Submitted: 19 June 2022 Reviewed: 04 July 2022 Published: 28 July 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.106241

From the Edited Volume

Advances in Root Vegetables Research

Edited by Prashant Kaushik

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Abstract

Climate change is a major factor endangering sustainable food production. Various efforts have been made to prevent potential food shortages in future. Meanwhile, access to adequate food is an important part of human rights. In Indonesia, the opportunity for cassava development is still widely open and has potential to provide for the world’s needs in future. Cassava is well-known by farmers in Indonesia and can be easily cultivated in all areas of Indonesia, even though the soil fertility is low. The current problems are that cassava is still considered as an inferior commodity and is only used for direct consumption. Indonesia is able to meet the world\'s cassava needs only by utilizing 54% of the total available land, which is suitable for planting cassava. Cassava utilization is actually large and has potential as raw material for many strategic industries. The map of cassava development in Indonesia is in the phase of growth and product expansion (diversification). Thus, the efforts in preparing cassava in Indonesia to meet the world’s needs in future, including (1) increasing cassava productivity, (2) improving cassava added value by-product diversification, and (3) enhancing cassava bio-economy by implementing a bio-industry system integrating cassava and livestock farming.

Keywords

  • cassava development
  • cassava-livestock integrated farming
  • climate change
  • global food
  • sustainable food production

1. Introduction

Climate change is a major factor endangering sustainable food production. Various efforts have been made to prevent potential food shortages in future. Cassava and sago are not considered as main staple foods, and their production is not significantly influenced by climate. Access to adequate food is an important part of human rights, in addition to the rights of being free from hunger, obtaining safe drinking water, and accessing to any resources, including fuel. Food sovereignty is the right to sufficient food, which means that every people both individually and collectively in their community, must have access to food at all times physically and economically [1, 2, 3].

One of the agricultural commodities, which is a focus for development in Indonesia is cassava. Cassava has a variety of highly prospective and sustainable derivative products, both food and non-food. In general, cassava is processed into tapioca. Cassava starch can be further processed into modified cassava flour (mocaf) as an alternative to wheat flour and hydrolyzed starch can be further processed into glucose syrup and its derivatives. Meanwhile, for non-food purposes, cassava is utilized as raw material in cosmetics, bioethanol, chemicals, and textile industries. The benefits of cassava are divided into local staple foods, agricultural industrial products, and industrial raw materials, so cassava has the potential to be developed [4, 5, 6].

In Indonesia, cassava is also an important food crop commodity after rice, corn, soybean, peanut, and mung bean. Cassava is utilized for food, feed, bioethanol, and industrial raw materials. In terms of food utilization, cassava is not only for meeting the need of carbohydrates as a rice substitute but it is also developed for food diversification. In addition, cassava has wide adaptability, easy to store, and has good taste, so that by diversifying cassava products it is expected that it can create new business opportunities and increase farmers’ income [7, 8, 9].

Regarding food security improvement, the Government of Indonesia through the Ministry of Agriculture continuously makes efforts in reducing rice consumption by looking for food substitutes, such as cassava. In several areas in Indonesia, cassava has been used as a food ingredient, such as in form of blocks, chips, and traditional sun dried-slice cassava or gaplek, which have longer shelf-life. However, cassava is still considered as an inferior commodity, so it is not in demand by community. Therefore, the strategy for increasing the community interest in cassava consumption begins with processing cassava into various products that have added value and high-selling value [10].

The potential and opportunities for cassava development are still widely open in line with the development of processed food products, livestock industry, and other industries, such as alcohol, sorbitol, fructose, and many others, and also be supported by research and innovation. Currently, the plastic industries start using tubers, including cassava, as their raw material for biodegradable plastics that are more environmentally friendly [11, 12].

Cassava as raw material for food has not been able to compete with rice or wheat flour. It can be seen from food business actors who use rice or wheat flour as raw materials more than the local ones, such as tapioca, mocaf, arrowroot flour, and so on. Businesses with local raw materials are not nonexistent, but they are few in number, and their products are not widely known by the community. In addition, there are still few business actors who specifically process local food products. Most of the existing industries are still labor intensive and not supported yet by good infrastructures, so their productivity is still low. In fact, local food ingredients are usually consumed in form of their derivative products, such as flour, which is further processed into noodles, cakes, and so on. This problem causes the distribution of local food products is not as wide as imported food products. The improvement in efficiency and effectiveness of local food postharvest and processing, both into intermediate and end-products that have added value should be carried out to succeed in food diversification.

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2. Potentials and performances of cassava in Indonesia

The performance of cassava production in Indonesia is continuously increasing since 2018 at 1.51%. The five provinces with the highest cassava production are Lampung, Central Java, East Java, West Java, and East Nusa Tenggara (Figure 1). The domestic cassava productivity fluctuates where in the last five years the average production is 23.99 tons/ha [13].

Figure 1.

The largest cassava-producing areas in Indonesia (Source: [13]).

The realization and prediction of cassava production in Indonesia are described in Table 1. At the farming level, cassava productivity is very low, only around 20–26 tons, and still far below the yield of the research result, which is an average of 40 tons/ha. The low productivity of cassava farming causes by conventional cultivation, which is still dependent on existing agro-climatic conditions, and the low mastery of farmers on cassava technology, particularly for those who live in marginal areas (dry land and forest edges). As a result, the supply of cassava to various industries is not continuous. It can be overcome by applying the recommended technology for both improved varieties and cultivation, as well as cropping patterns setting [14].

YearPlanting (ha)Harvesting (ha)Productivity (ku/ha)Production (tons)Production rate (%)
2020663,137631,559262.2516,587,900
2021669,488637,608262.8916,762,0731.05
2022677,110644,866263.4416,988,3611.35
2023686,146653,473264.2617,268,6691.65
2024697,375664,167265.5817,638,9452.14

Table 1.

Realization and prediction of planting area, harvesting area, and cassava productivity in Indonesia.

Source: [13]

Indonesia is the fourth largest cassava-producing country in the world with a total production of 19–20 million tons after Nigeria (57 million tons), Thailand (30 million tons), and Brazil (23 million tons). The area of ​​cassava planting in 2019 was 628,305 ha with a production of 16.35 million tons spread across 13 provinces. Over the last five years, cassava productivity tends to increase c.a. 2.85%. The average growth rate increased by 2.64% per year, with productivity from 97.51 ku/ha in 2011 to 239.13 ku/ha in 2016. The average growth of cassava export volume and value in 2000–2015 increased by 96.21% and 118.22% per year, respectively. Indonesia exports cassava in fresh and processed forms (flour, dried-shredded cassava, and pellets), especially to Taiwan, the Philippines, Australia, Malaysia, England, and Brunei Darussalam [15, 16].

The opportunity for cassava development is very large, considering the land availability is relatively wide. Based on data from BPS in 2005, the potential for dry land in Indonesia was 25,955,901 ha consisting of 10,775,051 ha of upland, 3,839,093 ha of idle land or ladang, and 11,341,757 ha of temporarily uncultivated land. These lands have the potential for agricultural areas, including the development of cassava cultivation. The minimum world demand for cassava is 271.6 million tons (Table 2) [17, 18, 19, 20]. With the large potential of land in Indonesia for cassava cultivation, the world's needs can be met by cassava production from Indonesia by only requiring a cassava harvest area of 13.9 million ha or 54% of the potential dry land suitable for cassava cultivation.

Growth rate for utilization 1993–2020 (% per year)Utilization in 2020 (million tons)Production in 2020 (million tons)
FoodFeedTotal
Southeast Asia1.40.131.2527.051.1
China−1.272.081.193.94.2
Other East Asia−0.951.090.633.50.0
India1.000.001.007.67.8
Other South Asia1.000.000.830.60.6
Latin America0.261.260.7839.340.5
Sub-Saharan Africa2.510.292.47166.0166.0
Developing2.011.181.8828.8271.1
Developed0.030.010.0222.70.4
World2.010.591.68271.6271.6

Table 2.

Production and utilization of cassava in the world.

Source: [18, 19]

There are 77 kinds of carbohydrates-source food crops in Indonesia in addition to rice. Among them, tubers, including cassava, have nutritional content equivalent to rice or wheat. As an alternative to non-rice food, cassava can be served in daily menu, as long as it is enriched with high protein food [21, 22]. Besides being processed directly from fresh roots, cassava can also be processed into an intermediate product in the form of flour, which can be further processed into food products with a longer shelf-life and higher-selling value.

Cassava is a rice substitute, which has an important role in supporting the food security of regions in Indonesia. However, there are still many obstacles faced in changing the existing consumption patterns in the community. Therefore, in regard to food security in regions, it is necessary to disseminate cassava-based food diversification as an alternative to rice or corn.

In line with the increasing demand for food and industrial materials, the availability of raw materials with quantity and quality which fulfill each demand requirement is indispensable. For example, as raw material for flour, cassava should have dry matter and starch content of >20%; and for foodstuffs and food industry material, in addition to high starch content, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) content must also be <50 mg/kg [23]. The strategies on it include providing suitable improved varieties and increasing productivity through cassava cultivation technology improvement, especially fertilization and pest control.

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3. Indonesia’s performance in world cassava trade flows

Indonesia ranks fourth in the world as a cassava producer with a production share of 9.26% and an average production of 22.819 million tons (Table 3), Cassava in the world is traded in form of fresh cassava and processed dried cassava.

Cassava commodityQuantity (tons)
Production22,819,353
Consumption13,112,440
Export:
  • Fresh cassava

  • Processed-dried cassava

128,587
41,241
Import:
  • Fresh cassava

  • Processed-dried cassava

1230
406

Table 3.

Cassava trade in Indonesia (in average units), 2011–2016.

Source: Processed data [24, 25, 26]

The average growth of cassava export volume from 2011–2016 increased by 96.21% per year. Exports of cassava from Indonesia are in the form of fresh and processed, such as cassava flour, shredded cassava, and cassava pellets. Indonesia's cassava exports are mainly to Taiwan, the Philippines, Australia, Malaysia, England, and Brunei Darussalam. Meanwhile, the volume of cassava imports in the same period also fluctuated with a tendency to increase by 76.32% per year. Indonesia’s cassava imports are generally in the form of cassava flour, shredded cassava, and cassava pellets, mainly from Thailand, Vietnam, and Myanmar [24, 25, 26].

As a cassava-producing country with an average production of 22.819 million tons, Indonesia is only able to export dried cassava on average 41,241 tons or only 1.90% share of world cassava exports. Meanwhile, the volume of dried cassava imports in Indonesia is quite small, with an average of 406 tons (0.01%) or ranks 31st in the world. Most of the cassava production is still absorbed by the domestic market for consumption and industry. The problem of “large production but small exports” is not only experienced by Indonesia but also by several countries, such as Nigeria and Brazil [27].

The low export of cassava from Indonesia causes the low price of imported cassava starch. As a result, cassava farmers cannot compete and affect the selling price of cassava in Indonesia. In addition, as food, feed, and industrial raw materials, cassava does not yet have an agreement on the basic price. In regards to a strategic approach to developing competitive cassava exports, the efficiency of farming and the improvement of cassava added value should be carried out considering the higher level of global competition [28, 29].

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4. Cassava agro-industries from upstream to downstream

The developed agricultural product processing industries based on local resources ranging from home industries to large industries, as well as regional core competencies is one of the ideals of the Indonesian industry, with the expectation that the potential of each region can be optimally utilized and does not depend on imports. Thus, there will be no more inequality because each region is able to develop its industries. Well-managed industries in each region will further strengthen the structure of national manufacturing industries [30].

Cassava is very well-known by farmers in Indonesia and can be planted easily in all regions in Indonesia even though the soil fertility is low. Cassava is also very flexible in farming and harvesting age, resistant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and can produce well in a sub-optimal environment compared to other food crops. Furthermore, with the advances in agricultural technology, cassava productivity can be increased to 100% of the average farmer productivity. Thus, it becomes great opportunity for the development of a bioindustry based on cassava.

Cassava is the daily staple food consumed by households and most of it is obtained from their farm themselves. Cassava has proven to be suitable for local agricultural and food systems and becoming a major food crop in some areas. Therefore, cassava should be promoted to maintain and even increase its productivity and to ensure that households can maintain their dietary pattern and livelihoods. Policies to support cassava production and processing, as well as to promote the availability of cassava products in the market can contribute to improving rural food security, especially during climate change [31].

The food diversification program aims to utilize various local food sources, such as cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, sago, and others. However, currently what has happened is wheat consumption experiencing a significant increasing trend and there is a diversification of wheat flour-based food products, which results in the increase in wheat flour imports to Indonesia. Wheat flour contributes 20% of total food consumption in Indonesia. The value of wheat flour imports reached more than IDR 30 trillion, even higher than the budget value of the Ministry of Agriculture of IDR 27 trillion. Moreover, wheat flour is the only agricultural commodity with 0% imported tax. Therefore, for reducing wheat flour and its derivatives consumption, it is necessary to develop local food diversification which has a higher substitution value [32].

The quality of cassava from Indonesia in terms of moisture content and starch color intensity is better than that from Thailand and Vietnam, so that when converted into modified cassava starch, the moisture content of starch is lower and the starch is brighter [26]. Cassava has the potential to be developed as a raw material for the carbohydrate-based food industry. Efforts for cassava utilization as a buffer for food security include the development of cassava flour. In addition to extending the shelf life of the product, the purpose of flour production is also that the product is more preferred by consumers, and with cassava flour derivatives into modified cassava flour (mocaf), the physicochemical properties of cassava flour will increase, so that it is suitable for a wheat flour substitute in processed food products, such as cakes, bread, and noodles [33].

Starch in cassava can be used as raw material and adhesive in textile, paper, and certain confectionery industries [34, 35]. The use of α-amylase and amyloglucosidase in the hydrolysis of starch in cassava peels allow the fermentation process for the production of alcoholic beverages, vinegar, and bioethanol, and becomes an added value for the utilization of cassava wastes mainly from starch production [36, 37].

The development of cassava production provides a competitive industrial system, such as cheap raw material, easy to plant, and wide growth ability (both on fertile and marginal land), so that cassava products will create new business opportunities and increase farmers' welfare. However, supporting institutions for cassava farming systems for industrial purposes have not been well organized. The development of cassava-based agro-industries can be carried out from home-scale to large-scale industries. Several cassava-based industries of various scales, including chips, dried-slice cassava (gaplek), and dried-shredded cassava (sawut) can be established in the upstream industrial sector and create partnership activities with cassava farmers. Besides food and feed utilization, cassava can be developed as a raw material for bioethanol. Bioethanol is an alternative energy source for fuel and is carried out on large-scale industries [26].

Therefore, in developing a food diversification program to support food security, cassava is one of the food crop commodities that has an important role to support the program. Cassava production has great potential to be increased and the tubers can be processed into various products that can encourage the development of the agro-industry.

Based on the cassava industry tree (Figure 2), there are 28 cassava products and about 80% of them are for non-food purposes [38], and the rest of 10–20% are for food purposes (staple food, intermediate, and end-products). Preferences of cassava as industrial raw material has not well-known yet by farmers; while many cassava varieties have characteristics and specifications, which are suitable for industrial purposes. For instance, cassava with good taste for food industries, high biomass for feed industries, high starch content for ethanol industries, and many others have not been identified yet. To increase cassava productivity, it is necessary to apply improved varieties and cultivation technologies that are adaptive for each cassava-producing area, and suitable for product utilization.

Figure 2.

Cassava industrial tree (Source: [38]).

From 1978–2015, about 12 improved varieties of cassava have been released by the Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development (IAARD), including Adira 1, Adira 2, Adira 4, Malang 1, Malang 2, Darul Hidayah, UJ 3, UJ 5, Malang 4, Malang 6, Litbang UK 2, and UK 1 Agritan with the yield >30 tons/ha [14]. Therefore, to suppress the yield gaps in farming level can be done by planting those IAARD’s high-yielding varieties.

Among production technology components, improved varieties have important and strategic roles due to they are essential for increasing crop productivity. As mentioned before that for food purposes, the improved cassava varieties with good taste, fluffier, and low HCN content, such as Adira 1, Malang 1, Malang 2, and Darul Hidayah are suitable. While the improved cassava varieties are suitable for industrial raw materials producing flour and starch should have high yield, high dry matter, and starch content. The HCN content is not a requirement of cassava for industrial raw material because most of it will be lost in washing, heating, and drying processes. Several improved varieties that are suitable for industrial raw materials, including Adira 4, Malang 6, UJ 3, UJ 5, and Malang 4 varieties, which have been well-known and planted by farmers [39]. While Litbang UK 2 variety has potential as a biofuel due to its high ethanol content. The potential yield of 96% bioethanol of Litbang UK 2 is 144,72 l/ha [40]. Table 4 describes the improved cassava varieties released by the IAARD for the utilization of food and industrial raw materials.

VarietyYear of releaseHarvested age (months)Productivity (tons/ha)HCN content (mg/kg)Starch content (%wb)Flour yield (%)Other characteristics
Improved cassava varieties suitable for food.
Adira 119787–102227.545Not bitter, yellow-fleshed tubers
Malang 119929–1036<4032–36Not bitter, yellowish white-fleshed tubers
Malang 219928–1031<4032–36Not bitter, light yellow-fleshed tubers
Darul Hidayah19988–12100<4025–31.535–45Fairly bitter, white-fleshed tubers
Improved cassava varieties suitable for industry.
Adira 219788–122212441Bitter, white-fleshed tubers
Adira 4197810356818–2239Bitter, white-fleshed tubers, ethanol conversion 4.5–4.7 kg peeled tubers/l
Malang 4200194010025–32Bitter, white-fleshed tubers
Malang 6200193610025–3243Bitter, white-fleshed tubers, ethanol conversion 4.7–5.1 kg peeled tubers/l
UJ 320008–1027>10020–2741Bitter, yellowish-fleshed tubers, ethanol conversion 4.9 kg peeled tubers/l
UJ 520009–1031>10019–3046Bitter, white-fleshed tubers, ethanol conversion 4.5 kg peeled tubers/l
Litbang UK 220129–10423118–3143Bitter, white-fleshed tubers, ethanol conversion 4.3 kg peeled tubers/l

Table 4.

Improved cassava varieties suitable for food and industrial raw materials.

Note: % wb = percentage in wet basis; Source: [41]

In the downstream industrial sector, cassava-based agro-industry aims to increase the added value of cassava by processing the commodity into various high-value products. Various cassava-based products (intermediate and end-products) have been produced, both in small-scale industries with simple equipment and large-scale with modern machinery [42]. Tapioca as a cassava intermediate product, has been growing rapidly in Indonesia. In recent years, agro-industry modified cassava flour (mocaf) has also been started [43]. Several agro-industries produce cassava end-products, such as cakes, chips, brownies, traditional sweets (dodol), fermented cassava (tape or tapai), and so on. In addition, cassava processing wastes or by-products can also be processed into fertilizer, especially for plantation crops and the cassava peels can be processed into animal feed [43].

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5. Cassava value chain for agro-industry

The importance of agricultural sectors strengthened by the integration among related sectors from upstream to downstream can increase regional economy, absorb labor, and equalize regional development, which leads to an increase in community welfare, as well as strengthen the national economy. It can be realized by increasing the role in the value chain, whereby adding activities and the ability to increase product value will provide independence for the regions producing agricultural commodities. The goal is that the region is not only an object of development but is able to become a subject due to the ability to process and market agricultural commodities independently. According to Kaplinsky and Morris (in [44]), a value chain consisting of various actors (main producers, processors, traders, and service providers) can be established if all actors at the chain work in such a way to maximize the value along the chain.

The structure of the cassava value chain ideally includes five elements, namely, end market (consumer) opportunities, supportive business environment, vertical relationships, horizontal relationships, and supporting markets. If these five elements work properly, marketing costs can be streamlined and can improve coordination [45]. Meanwhile, in terms of marketing, the lack of access to information on prices and goods, which are mostly controlled by brokers and wholesalers, uneven road access, and the inability of farmers to diversify cassava commodities have caused farmers to not have a competitive advantage. In addition, too many actors are involved from cassava production to marketing, including traders from inside and outside region, brokers or middlemen, and wholesalers, causing the unstable price of cassava. Therefore, strengthening the cassava value chain and trading system are very important, so that it will be able to improve the bargaining position of farmers.

The impact of cassava economy improvement will be widespread and involve many stakeholders. The biggest stakeholders are cassava farmers and small-scale processors in rural areas. Middle-upper industries and middlemen have an important role to play in enhancing future linkages. The demand for cassava-based processed products plays an important and effective role as an economy driver. Unfortunately, not all rural farming communities can develop toward a value-added improvement orientation. The rural agro-industry or bio-industry is still lagging behind, causing the added value to flow out of the region [46].

Study of value chain for cassava based on observations and desk study to its actors in Indonesia resulted in three models of cassava supply chain [47, 48], that is, (I) direct sale of cassava fresh tubers, (II) cassava tubers for food, and (III) tapioca starch. Figure 3 depicts the schematic diagrams for the three models. The simplest supply chain model is the direct sale of cassava fresh tuber to consumers (Model I). This model involves three actors, namely, farmers, retailers or small traders, and consumers. Small traders act as middlemen between farmers and consumers. In Model I, cassava has low economic value due to there is no further product transformation, and fresh tubers are only used for direct consumption or for animal feed. Model II involves four actors, namely, farmers as cassava suppliers, middlemen as collectors of cassava from farmers, processors who sometimes also act as food vendors for their cassava products to consumers, and consumers as the users of the end-product. In Model II, there is a slight increase in cassava's economic value due to it has undergone further processing. The last existing model is Model III, which is the most complex supply chain of all existing supply chains. There are eight actors involved in Model III, namely, farmers, traders (middlemen), tapioca industries, distributors, retailers, consumers, snack industries, and cattlemen. In this supply chain model, cassava undergoes the highest product transformation and the highest economic value.

Figure 3.

Cassava value chain (Source : [47, 48]).

The reality of the current yield of cassava in Indonesia is cultivated by farmers in marginal land with small land ownership area, poor transportation facilities, and the majority of the yield is used for direct consumption or snack (70–80%). Meanwhile, based on the utilization of industrial trees, cassava is widely used for non-food raw materials for strategic industries (Figure 2). So, there is a lack of raw materials supply for non-food products. The non-food industries are only supplied by large industries engaged in the cassava business and about 10–15% by cassava farmers around the industrial locations with easy transportation facilities. Thus, in general, the cassava value chain is quite short, so it is necessary to increase the cassava added value to extend the cassava value chain from farmers.

Realizing that added value of cassava from the processing activities in the downstream sector is much higher than the primary products in the upstream, the future agricultural development approach is directed toward product development. The added value development is carried out through agro-industrial development, which processes primary products into competitive intermediate and end-products [49].

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6. Map of cassava business development

The development of cassava is carried out from upstream at the farm level to downstream for food, feed, and industrial businesses. These four cassava businesses are described in four quadrants (Figure 4). The development of cassava at upstream or farm level is in quadrant I where this position is between the strength (S) factor and the opportunity (O) factor. In this area, the business is at a growth rate, which is further development is carried out by managing or optimizing the business’ strengths to seize opportunities. The direction (slope) of cassava farming development tends toward the opportunity (O) factor, so that the implementation includes meeting high market demand by increasing cassava productivity (yield) [50].

Figure 4.

Map of cassava business development (Source: [50]).

Position of cassava development as raw material for food and feed is also in quadrant I with the directions (slopes) of those development positions tend towards strength (S). Businesses of cassava as food and feed raw materials have strength factors larger than the weakness. Meanwhile, by looking at the influence of the environment on cassava farming development on food, the opportunity for cassava development is easier to achieve, due to the opportunity (O) value being higher than the threat (T) value. The threats for cassava development at the farm level, as well as for food and feed businesses, can be anticipated by seizing the best opportunities supported by the use of great strength.

The development of cassava farming for industrial raw materials is in quadrant II, which means that the direction of development is still leaning toward threat (T) factor than to strength (S) factor. Thus, the right strategy is exploring the strength owned by the business to overcome the existing threat, namely, product diversification strategy. Product diversification will enhance the longer and more numerous value chain, so that it will reduce the threat in the cassava business.

There is a lesson learned from the small-scale cassava industry, namely, UD. Riang in Malang Regency, East Java Province produces three kinds of processed cassava in form of instant food, namely, instant gatot, instant sweet tiwul, and instant plain tiwul, would show us how this small business is trying to manage its strengths to seize market opportunities [51].

Gatot and tiwul are traditional specific Javanese food and usually consume in some barren areas in Java, such as in Gunung Kidul (Yogyakarta), Wonogiri (Central Java), and Trenggalek (East Java). Javanese people in that area tend to consume cassava as their staple food as a rice substitute during famine times. Firstly, cassava was processed into gaplek by drying the cassava under the sun, so that it can be stored longer. For consumption purposes, gaplek can be further processed into gatot and tiwul. Gatot is made from sliced black brown-color gaplek that is overnight-soaked then steamed, while tiwul is made from chopped white-color gaplek into a coarse powder that is mixed with water and then steamed. Gatot and tiwul have unique texture affected by the gelatinization of starch from gaplek. The steamed gatot is usually consumed as a sweet snack and served with some sugar, salt, and grated coconut flesh, while tiwul is usually served as a rice substitute by adding side dishes with plain or salty taste or consumed as a sweet snack by further processed using with brown sugar and sprinkled with grated coconut flesh [52].

UD. Riang has a production capacity of 100 kg per product per one production time, where the one-time production process of instant sweet and plain tiwul is 3 days and instant gatot is 7 days. UD. Riang is trying to continue to improve the image of processed cassava as a prestigious food by doing innovations in processing cassava from traditional Javanese food with local wisdom into the current trend of people's eating patterns that demand fast and practical things, in form of instant food.

UD. Riang also improved product packaging to keep up with the current times and included the information of expiration date and the Ministry of Health's permit in the packaging. Product quality is always maintained and no preservatives are used in this instant traditional food processing. UD. Riang actively participates in traditional food festivals to expand the marketing of their products and introduce them to the community. The management of UD. Riang continues to innovate the products because they realize that the sales of these three instant cassava products are very volatile in the market, so they need to be maintained in order to do not fall and disappear from the market. UD. Riang is also trying to expand the marketing segment by reaching potential young consumers, so that the unique and attractive products should be displayed where they can compete with other processed food products that are already in demand by young consumers [51].

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7. Bio-economic potential of cassava

The potential and opportunities for developing cassava as a bio-economy in the future are widely open. This potential is in line with the development of the livestock industry, processed food, and other industries, such as alcohol, sorbitol, fructose, and many others. In the future, the plastic industry will also use tubers, including cassava, as raw material. The added value of cassava commodities obtained from the development of processed products in the downstream sector is much higher than the upstream at the farm level. Therefore, the approach for future agricultural development should be more directed at developing products postharvesting.

Agro-industry is a sector that is able to provide added value to cassava commodities. Agro-industry has a direct relationship with primary agriculture, where the industry processes primary agricultural commodities into intermediate products, such as flours and direct consumption products. Thus, the cassava agro-industry needs to be supported by the availability of research technology starting from the production (cultivation and varieties) up to postharvest and processing for food, feed, and other industries.

So far, cassava farming has not implemented an efficient business concept considering that there are many potentials and opportunities that have not been utilized optimally, for instance, the waste (biomass) from cassava crops, which can be used for unconventional feed [53]. Based on the definition of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), the characteristics of unconventional feed are as follows: (1) it is the end result of production, which can no longer be used or recycled, (2) it is a solid or liquid organic material, (3) it has low economic value compared to the cost of collection and processing, (4) it is a source of fermentable carbohydrates, and (5) it is a bulky material containing high crude fiber and low nitrogen [54]. Cassava peel is an excellent raw material for feed. With cassava production of 18.9 million tons per year, white colored-inner peel waste can reach 1.5–2.8 million tons, while brown colored-outer peel waste reaches 0.04–0.09 million tons [55].

The potential economic value of cassava farming is IDR 71,790,000 at farmer productivity level of 42.5 tons/ha with the price of cassava is IDR 1,200/kg. Indirect economic benefits are IDR 20,698,000 or 29.7% of total economic benefits or 40% of direct use economic value received by farmers. Besides, there are intrinsic values that have not been detected and will be known in further cassava development (Table 5) [56].

CategoryUse value (IDR 000)Intrinsic valueTotal (IDR 000)
DirectIndirectOptionalExistencePride/
heritage
Farm level:
  • Leaves

  • Stem

51,0001,028
6,670
51,000
1,028
6,670
Feed:
  • Cassava peel

  • Stem stump (bonggol)

500
5,200
N.d.N.d.N.d.500
5,200
Industry:
  • Cassava peel

  • Solid waste (gamblong)

  • Fluid waste

300
7,000
worthless
300
7,000
Total51,00020,69871,798

Table 5.

Potential economic value of cassava for agro-industry from the upstream industrial sector.

Note: N.d. = not detected; Source: [56]

The bio-economic approach is needed to create business sustainability in the form of a bio-industrial system integrating cassava crops and livestock. Besides tubers as the main yield of cassava, there are cassava by-products (biomass) that can be used for livestock feed. While livestock manure can be utilized as fertilizer or processed into biogas for energy or fuel in the industry. Thus, the interdependence and beneficial integration creating biological and economic circulation can enhance the bio-economy of cassava farming [57].

Cassava biomass processing can produce various products with high value-added and facilitate the essential nutrients recycling is needed to maintain the sustainability of land productivity. Cassava is also one of the most efficient crops for harvesting solar energy. The integration of cassava cultivation with certain processing methods will form an industrial symbiotic structure, such as in the pattern of symbiotic interaction in biological community life (Figure 5) [56].

Figure 5.

Integration pattern of cassava (Source: [56]).

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8. Upcoming strategy in cassava development

Based on the cassava business development map (Figure 4), policies and operational strategies for cassava development can be carried out. Table 6 formulates policies and operational strategies for the four cassava business sectors. The operational strategies are concrete steps in implementing policies that must be carried out to develop cassava toward certain targets.

Business levelStrategyTarget
PolicyOperational
FarmS-O Strategy:
Intensive cultivation with the use of new technology in the production and post-production stages and planting area expansion
  1. The assistance on new improved cassava seeds.

  2. Demonstration of cassava cultivation technology.

  3. Training on cassava cultivation techniques for farmer groups.

  4. Expansion of cassava planting area.

Farmers. local government
Food businessS-O Strategy:
Regulate cassava production system from upstream to downstream sector
  1. Arrange cassava planting system and planting area zoning.

  2. The assistance on capital from financial institutions.

  3. Training on production to improve food product quality.

  4. Support of local government for marketing and business partnership.

  5. Promotion of functional food products to improve the image of cassava in the community.

Farmers. community, processors, industries, financial institutions, and local government
Feed businessS-O Strategy:
Disseminate the processing technology on cassava biomass for livestock feed
  1. Introduction and promotion of affordable cassava feed technology.

  2. Training on cassava biomass technology for farmers.

Farmers, processors
Industrial raw material businessS-T Strategy:
Improve business scale by doing product development or diversification and business partnership and producer capacity improvement
  1. Counseling on liquid waste from the production process.

  2. Training on various products from cassava.

  3. Entrepreneurship training for processors.

  4. Capital assistance

  5. Marketing and partnership supporting.

Processors, industries, financial institutions, and local government

Table 6.

Policy and operational strategies for cassava development.

Source: Processed data [49]

First, the strategy carried out at the farm level to increase cassava production in the form of intensive cultivation with the application of new technology at the production and post-production stages, as well as expansion of the planting area. The expansion of the planting area includes: (a) new land clearing, (b) double planting, and (c) increasing harvest index. Meanwhile, increasing production through intensification can be done by applying several alternative cultivation technologies, including (1) improved varieties, (2) seed preparation, (3) land preparation, (4) planting, (5) fertilization, (6) plant maintenance, and (7) harvest.

Second, the policy for the food business sector is to regulate the production system of cassava commodities from upstream to downstream. The continuity of the supply of cassava raw materials is important because the cassava harvest period is relatively long and cassava planting is mostly done during the rainy season. Therefore, it is necessary to arrange the planting system and the zoning of the cassava planted area in order to provide sustainable yields for the supply of raw materials, such as for tapioca production.

The inappropriate planning in cassava procurement causes a significant loss of starch content. This inappropriate occurred on farmers' land by suspending the harvest time to anticipate higher-selling prices, and in the warehouse of the cassava processing industry where do the overstock due to concerns that the supply of raw material would be inconsistent during the low season so that it was unable to meet the factory's demand for a year. Therefore, appropriate planning in the cassava procurement will increase production efficiency and reduce production costs, and at the same time will maintain a consistent supply of raw material to starch industries [58].

Third, the policy for the feed business sector will be implemented is the socialization of livestock ration technology using cassava biomass (tuber peels, stems, and leaves), which is quite potential and needs to be explored. The optimal utilization of local resources is a strategic step in achieving business efficiency in ruminant livestock production. This efficiency will be more significant if these resources are not directly needed by competitors, namely, humans and livestock, other than ruminants. Feed is closely related to productivity and production costs; therefore, the efficient use of local resources will greatly affect the development of ruminants [59].

Cassava is an important multi-purpose crop. Cassava is an affordable alternative feed for livestock and has great potential in the future due to the increasing demand for cassava products. Cassava tubers are low in protein but a good source of carbohydrates that can be used as a supplement in poultry feed. The leaves have a moderate protein content, which can replace part of conventional protein sources in livestock feed. Anti-nutritional substances, especially cyanide, reduce the feeding value of cassava commodities, but the appropriate processing can reduce the level and make the product safe for the feed. Cassava commodity has entered the industrial market and has great potential in the feed industry [60].

Fourth, the policy of cassava for the industrial raw material sector is to increase business scale through product development or diversification, business partnership, and producer capacity improvement. The policy is expected to overcome the obstacles of cassava as industrial raw material because the position of cassava development in this sector is facing opportunity (O) and threat (T) factors.

For instance, some cassava enterprises in the Central Java and Yogyakarta Provinces had already performed business-oriented processing and quality assurance methods, which require the best quality of cassava as industrial raw material. Some business units that diversify and intensify their products perform more effective business and result in a better selling price. However, most of the business units have not kept accounting records, resulting in the lack of data about the financial position. Business partnership, business diversification and intensification, and business record keeping can guarantee the sustainability of business [61].

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9. Conclusions

Indonesia has a great opportunity in supplying the world's food needs in the future—only by utilizing 54% of the total available land, which is suitable for planting cassava, by preparing the potential of cassava. The potential of this land area that is also supported by human resources (farmers) who have long experience in cassava farming can be realized through some efforts as follows:

  1. Increase cassava productivity by the availability of cassava planting system technology in form of new improved varieties and cultivation technology. This potential will be easily realized because the cassava development business map at the farm level is in the growth phase.

  2. Increase the added value of cassava, so that the cassava value chain will be longer. This increase in cassava added value is also supported by the position of the cassava development business for industrial raw materials in the diversification phase. Product diversification will provide added value for cassava to support global needs.

  3. Increase farmers’ income and welfare, as well as meet cassava raw materials supply in the future by creating a cassava bio-economy. The bio-economic approach will enhance business continuity or optimum sustainable yield by obtaining maximum profit from the business. The integration of cassava crops and livestock farming is a form to realize cassava economic circulation.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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Written By

Fachrur Rozi, Dian Adi Anggraeni Elisabeth, Ruly Krisdiana, Adri Adri, Yardha Yardha and Yanti Rina

Submitted: 19 June 2022 Reviewed: 04 July 2022 Published: 28 July 2022