Open access peer-reviewed chapter

Phytochemicals from Solanaceae Family and Their Anticancer Properties

Written By

Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav and Feba Sara Koshi

Submitted: 17 February 2022 Reviewed: 11 March 2022 Published: 25 June 2022

DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.104462

From the Edited Volume

Medicinal Plants

Edited by Sanjeet Kumar

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Abstract

Cancer is one of the most dreadful disease conditions all over the world. With the side effects and cost of conventional treatment, there is a demand for new therapies to prevent cancer. Research studies proved many plant products possess anticancer properties. Currently, a few plant-based drugs are used to treat it. The phytochemicals are investigated by in vitro and in vivo to assess their mechanism of action against cancer. This chapter is an overview of anticancer compounds extracted from plants of Solanaceae family with the potentials results. Many research has confirmed the anticancer efficiency of the biomolecules, such as solanine, solamargine, tomatidine, Withanolides, scopoletin, capsaicin found in Solanaceae, and their mode of action, such as cell cycle arrest, inhibiting signaling pathways, autophagy, suppression of enzymes in various human cancer cell lines of breast, pancreas, colorectal, liver, and cervical and also in animal models. This chapter seeks to provide an outline of key examples of anticancer activity of phytochemicals from the Solanaceae family, which offers a track for the development of novel medicines for cancer treatment as a single drug or in combinational drug. This chapter helps to identify the novel bioactive molecule for cancer treatment as lead molecule with less side effects in future.

Keywords

  • cancer
  • solanaceae
  • flavonoids
  • saponins
  • terpenes
  • anticancer properties
  • solanine
  • solamargine
  • tomatidine
  • withanolides apoptosis
  • cell cycle arrest

1. Introduction

Plants have been used for the treatment of diseases for centuries ago. Ancient manuscripts of different civilizations show evidence of using herbs as medicine. Now, this system is used in Unani, Ayurveda, and Siddha medicines also. According to WHO, 21,000 plant species have the potential to use as medicinal plants [1]. The plant is used as a whole or parts as medicine. The plant contains various chemicals called phytochemicals or phytonutrients, which are primary metabolites or secondary metabolites. These metabolites protect the plants from the attack of microbes, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. These chemicals are rich in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other plants. The intake of these plants decreases the risk of developing cancer, diabetes, and heart diseases. These chemicals may act as antioxidants or nutrient protectors [2].

Cancer, the abnormal growth of cells that can invade the nearby cells and even spread to other organs called metastasis, which can occur in any part of the body results due to various causes and factor is one of the most dreadful conditions in the world. Common cancer reported are breast, lung, colon, rectum, etc. Among those mentioned types high-mortality rate reported was because of lung cancer. The number of people affected is male [3]. The common treatment methods are radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. These treatments are quite expensive and also possess many side effects. These side effects can be reduced by using plant or plant-based drugs. Scientists prove that several plants and their components have the potential to fight against cancer and mechanism of action include cessation of the cell cycle, regulation of the transcription process, induction of autophagy, downregulation of proteins in biochemical pathways, and rupturing of the membrane. Also, it was reported that some chemicals are effective against more than one type of cancer [4].

There are different classes of phytochemicals derived anticancer drugs available on market. The drugs were used as tinctures, tea, powders, decoctions, etc. In vitro studies also prove that many plants in different parts of the world possess anticancer properties. Studies should be continued about the in vivo experimentation and clinical trials to integrate traditional medicine into modern treatment for the patients.

One among the family which possesses anticancer properties is the Solanaceae family. It is an angiosperm with 102 genera and more than 3000–4000 species of plants. Glycoalkaloids from Solanum species, such as solanine, solasonine, and solanidine, isolated from Withania somnifera L. have an anticancer property by arresting the cell cycle. David O Nwke et al. reviewed that Physapubescin B, a withanolide remoted from Physalis pubescens L. is used in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Extracts from Datura metel L. also show cell arrest in various studies [5]. The detailed evaluation of the mode of action of these chemicals in the Solanaceae members against cancer growth and multiplication opens a pathway for the future treatment of cancer.

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2. Solanaceae family

Solanaceae family belongs to the order Solanales of angiosperms. Generally, they are called as potato family. This group is also called as nightshade family because of the poisonous alkaloids present in some members of the family. Most of the plants are economically important because of their food, ornamental or medicinal values. Some of the plants in this family are potato, tomato, all peppers, eggplant, etc. It also contains deadly toxic plants. These family members are found throughout the world but are widely distributed in the tropical regions of South America. Members of this family show different morphological and ecological characteristics [6]. Some of the medicinal plants are Atropa, Hyosymus, Withania, Nicotiana, and Capsicum. Petunia, Datura, and Schizanthus are used as ornamental plants [7] (Table 1), (Figure 1).

Genus namePlant nameUses
SolanumSolanum nigrum L.Used for dysentery, stomach complaints, antitumorigenic, and antioxidant.
Solanum americanum L.used for the treatment of rheumatic pains, eye diseases, heart pain
Solanum melongena L.lower blood cholesterol level, used in the treatment of internal bleeding, piles, and toothache
Solanum surattense Burm. F.Used against cough, sore throat, etc.
Solanum lycopersicum L.To prevent prostate cancer, breast cancer, and skin diseases
AtropaAtropa acuminate RoyleUsed as diuretics
Atropa belladonna L.Used in traditional medicine
CapsicumCapsicum annum L.Lowering blood pressure and Cholesterol.
Caspsicum frutescens L.Treatment of cancer
DaturaDatura stramonium L.
Datura metel L.
antispasmodic and antiasthmatic diabetes, cancer, and viral infections
WithaniaWithania somnifera L.Used as a tranquilizer, Cancer treatment
Withanaia coagulans L.Is used to treat nervous prostration, sleeplessness, infertility, multiple sclerosis, etc.
HyoscyamusHyoscyamus niger L.
Hyoscyamus pusillus L.
Cerebral and spinal sedative
Used as anesthetics
NicotianaNicotiana tobacum L.antispasmodics, diuretics, antioxidant activity along with other pharmacological effects
PhysalisPhysalissubglabrata Mack & BushUsed as a hallucinogen, used as a remedy for abscesses, coughs, fevers, and sore throats.
ScopoliaScopolia carniolica Jacq.Used as antispasmodic

Table 1.

Important plants of the Solanaceae family and their uses [8].

Figure 1.

Some members of the Solanaceae family plants: 1. Capsicum frutescens .L. 2. Solanum nigrum L. 3. Solanum lycopersicum L. 4. Solanum melongena L.

Afroz et al. reported, “Bioactive secondary metabolites reported from the members of the Solanaceae include AMPs, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, lactones, lignans, steroids, simple phenols, sugars, and terpenoids” [7].

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3. Phytochemicals

Phytochemicals or phytonutrients are produced by plants. These chemicals are the basic principle for the nutritive as well as pharmacological action of plants. These chemicals also provide a defense mechanism to the plants against plant pathogens. The main pathogens belong to the class of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses [9]. The common vegetables and fruits, such as broccoli, berries, carrot, tomato, garlic, seeds, and onion, contain these chemicals in large quantities which increase the immune capacity of the body.

There are two types of metabolites in all living organisms including plants. They are primary metabolites, such as sugar, amino acids, nucleotides, and lipids, which are essential for their functioning. Plants also produce certain molecules which are not used directly in their life process such chemicals are called secondary metabolites synthesized by biochemical pathways, such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, and terpenoids discovered with various properties, such as induction of flowering, protection from pathogens, protection from the external environment, attractant or repellant for pollination, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activity. These chemicals and their product are used in herbal medicine and modern medicines [10, 11, 12].

3.1 Types of phytochemicals in the Solanaceae family

The phytochemicals are classified on the basis of their biosynthetic origin, structure, and solubility properties. The different types of phytochemicals are alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, steroids, etc. [13]. The Solanaceae family is rich in phytochemicals showing their effectiveness as medicinal plants (Table 2). The review studies show that most of these common plants in the selective family show anticancer properties (Figure 2) which can enlighten the treatment of cancer in the near future.

Genus namePlant namePhytochemicalClass
SolanumSolanum. nigrum L.Solasonine, Solamargine, Solanigroside P
Solamargine
Steroidal glycoalkaloids
Solanum anguivi LamAnguivioside A,B,CSaponins
Solanum incanum L.Solamargine, Methylprotodioscin
Indioside D
Steroidal glycoalkaloids
Solanum lycopersicum L.Lycopene. DiosgeninCarotenoid
Saponins
AtropaAtropa acuminata RoyleAtropineAlkaloids
Atropa belladonna L.Atropine, Apoatropine
Scopolamine
Kaempferol 3,7-diglycosides
Alkaloids
Alkaloids
Alkaloids
Flavonoids
CapsicumCapsicum annum L.Caffeic acid, capsinoids
Canusesnol
kaempferol-3-O-glucoside
Phenolics sesquiterpenoids flavonols
Capsicum frutescens L.Capsaicincapsaicinoids
DaturaDatura stramonium L.
Datura metal L.
Apoatropine
Tropine tropate
Withanolides,
Nitrogen-containing polyhydroxylated heterocyclic compounds
steroidal lactones
WithaniaWithania somnifera L.Withanolides, Withaferin A,, Physagulin D, Withanoside IVSteroids
steroidal lactone
Glycoside
Glycoside
Withania coagulans L.WithanolidesSteroidal lactone
HyoscyamusHyoscyamus niger L.Hyoscyamine, Apo atropine, hyoscine, skimmianine, scopolamine, belladoninesAlkaloids
NicotianaNicotiana tobacum L.NicotineAlkaloid

Table 2.

List of some phytochemicals and their classes in the Solanaceae family [14, 15, 16, 17].

Figure 2.

Plants of Solanaceae family and their phytochemicals against cancer.

The use of phytochemicals in pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries is an ongoing process that requires continuous and elaborate study.

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4. Alkaloids in Solanaceae

Alkaloids are cyclic nitrogenous secondary metabolites seen in many plants. They are synthesized during the biochemical synthesis of proteins and nucleic acid. These alkaloids have wide applications as drugs, narcotics, or poisons. Jerzykiewicz et al. reported, “Chenopodiaceae, Lauraceae, Magnoliaceae, Berberidaceae, Menispermaceae, Ranunculaceae, Papaveraceae, Fumariaceae, Papilionaceae, Rutaceae, Apocynaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Solanaceae, and Campanulaceae are some of the families that rich in alkaloids which protect the plant from insects, pest and also give disease resistant capacity to plants” [18]. This property of alkaloids in Solanaceae can be utilized for anticancer medicine production.

Alkaloids are classified into different categories based the on nature of the precursor molecule for its biosynthesis, chemical structure, biological effect, and heterocyclic or non-heterocyclic types [19]. The biological effects of alkaloids include hallucinogens, antimalarial, tranquilizer, anticancer, CNS stimulant, insecticidal, antiviral, antihypertension, antimicrobial, antirheumatics, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and diuretics. The alkaloids are used in the drug industry because they are the precursor for medicines for cardiovascular disease, menopause, etc.

In vitro and in vivo synthesis and production of alkaloids from the Solanaceae family were studied and showed successful results. In different members of Solanaceae alkaloid, the composition is between 0.01 and 3% [20]. “Tropane, indole, pyridine, pyrrolidine, steroidal, and glycoalkaloids” are mostly seen as classes of alkaloids of the above-mentioned group of the plant [21] (Table 3).

AlkaloidType of AlkaloidSourceBiological Action
AtropineTropaneAtropa belladonna L.Para sympatholytic, Anticholinergic.
HyoscyamineTropaneBrugmansia candida Pers
ScopolamineTropaneHyoscyanus niger L.Antidepressant and Antinausea
Daturametelindoles A-D (1–4)Indole AlkaloidsDatura metel L.Anticancer Effect
AnabasinePyridine
Alkaloids
Nicotiana tabacum L.Insecticide
NicotinePyridine
Alkaloids
N. tabacum L.Insecticidal
ChaconineGlycoalkaloidSolanum tuberosum L.Fungicidal
Solanidane; SolanidineSteroidal AlkaloidS. tuberosum L.Anticancer
SolamargineGlycoalkaloidSolanum palinacanthum Dunal
Solanum lycocarpum L.
Solanum melongena L.
anticancer
SolamarineGlycoalkaloidSolanum dulcamara L.Antibacterial
SolanineSaponinsSolanum nigrum L., S. tuberosum L.Antifungal
SolanopubamineSteroidal alkaloidSolanum schimperianum Hochst.Anticancer
SolasodineglycoalkaloidSolanum leucocarpum L.
Solanum trilobatum L.
Antibacterial
SolasonineglycoalkaloidS. lycocarpum L.
Solanum asperum Rich
substrate for the production of important steroids
Tomatidinesteroid glycosidesSolanum arboretum Humb. & Bonpl.
Solanum aculeastrum Dunal
Anticancerous

Table 3.

List of some of the alkaloids and its source [22, 23, 24].

The review studies show that tomatidine, solanopubamine, solamargine, solanidane; solanidine, daturametelindoles A-D (1–4) chemicals show anticancer activity in in vitro conditions by activation of caspase-3 and regulation of cell cycle to induce apoptosis. The detailed mechanism of action of these chemicals and their clinical trials will be an asset for developments in cancer medicine.

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5. Flavonoids in Solanaceae

Flavonoids have several potential effects in plants system such as attracting pollination, seed germination, aromatic flavors in defense mechanisms, stress tolerance, UV photoprotection, inducing root nodulation, and controlling transport of plant hormones [25, 26, 27]. Panche et al. reviewed that flavonoids have pharmaceutical, medicine, and cosmetic applications.

The different polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds had been reported from various members of the Solanaceae family (Table 4). Scopoletin (7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin), a coumarin, was isolated from Solanum lyratum Thunb. showed hepatoprotective activity [28]. One of the most common flavonols in Solanum nigrum L. is Quercetin showed antiproliferation effect in different types of cancer models by apoptosis by inducing DNA methylation [29].

SlFlavonoidsPlant SourceBiological Action
1LuteolinSolanum schimperianum Hochst.
Capsicum annum L.
Anticancer
2ApigeninSolanum lycoparpum L.Antioxidant,antibacterial, cytotoxic
3KaempferolSolanum lycoparpum L.Anticancer
4QuercetinSolanum nigrum L.Anticancer
5TangeretinPhysalis angulate L.
Physalis micranta L.
Antioxidant, anti-inflamotory,antitumour
6MycicetinSolanum agrarium SendtnAntispasmodic effect
7ScopoletinSolanum lyratium ThunbHepatoprotective activity
8AnthocyanidinsSolanum scabrum Mill
9AnthocyaninSolanum. Tuberosum L.Inhibition of cell proliferation

Table 4.

List of flavonoid from Solanaceae [27, 28, 29, 30].

The flavonoids, such as apigenin, kaempferol, quercetin, and anthocyanin are some of the chemicals isolated from the respective family that possesses antiproliferation effects against cancer cell lines [30].

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6. Saponins in the Solanaceae family

More than 100 plant families, a few starfishes, and sea cucumber reported the presence of saponins. Dicot families, such as Leguminosae, Araliaceae, and Caryophyllaceae, are sources of triterpenoid saponins. Steroidal saponins are found in families, such as Agavaceae, Alliaceae, Asparagaceae, Dioscoreaceae, Liliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Bromeliaceae, Palmae, and Scrophulariaceae. Solanaceae families contain steroidal glycoalkaloids [31]. Some of the biological activities of saponins are anti- cancer activity, reducing cholesterol levels, decreasing blood glucose, anti-inflammatory potentials, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity [32, 33].

Figueiredo et al. isolated steroidal saponins from the roots of Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam. (Solanaceae)which showed a response against dengue virus and yellow fever virus [34]. Chlorogenone, (5α,25S)-Spirostan-3,6-dione are isolated from Solanum torvum Sw. Nuatigenosido isolated from S. sisymbriifolium Lam. root shows an antihypertensive effect. The antifungal property was exhibited by leaves of Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl [35].

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7. Terpenes in the Solanaceae family

Terpenes are used in herbal medicines because of their biological activities. Some of the activities include antiplasmodial, especially antimalarial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, etc. Curcumin is one of the terpenes used in folk medicine Terpenes are used as flavors and fragrances in food and cosmetics [36].

Diterpene phytol was isolated from Solanum schimperianum, and Betulinic acid was isolated from Solanum buddleifolium. 3β-Hydroxysolavetivone from the root of S. abutiloides showed antifungal activities. Solavetivone and Lubimin also showed antifungal activities isolated from S. abutiloides.

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8. Anticancer effects of Solanaceae family and their mechanism

The common conventional treatment of cancer causes side effects and drug resistance in patients, so many plant species were attempted as anticancer drugs. α-chaconine a derivative of solanidine shows an antimetastatic effect individually also in combination with gallic acid by caspase-dependent apoptosis Reddivari et al. [37]. Solanine a glycoalkaloid present in Solanum tuberosum L. showed chemoprotective and chemotherapeutic effects. It also inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines, human melanoma cell lines, and human prostate cancer cells by apoptosis [38]. Solanidine a steroidal alkaloid from S. tuberosum L. and Solanum americanuum Mill. showed inhibition of cancer cells under laboratory conditions and also from the chemically derived compound of the same by the inhibition of DNA synthesis [39]. Tomatidine A steroid glycoside from Solanum arboretum Humb., Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. exhibited the suppression of cell invasion by inhibition of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in in vitro studies [40]. Tomatine spirosolane-type glycoalkaloids present in Solanum cathayanum Wu, Lycopersicon esculentum L. showed positive results against prostate cancer in mice when mixed with common drug for cancer by the induction of apoptosis mediated by P13K/Akt pro-signaling pathway [41].

Solamargine glycoalkaloid present in Solanum palinacanthum, Solanum lycocarpum, Solanum melongena reduced cell—viability by arresting cell cycle at the G2/M phase. Solasodine was evaluated by many workers for the induction of apoptosis [42]. Steroidal alkaloid soladulcidine, Beta-solamarine, and solanopubamine also show anticancer activity. Capsaicin, from Capsicum frutescens L., has anticancer effects on human cell lines of different origins [43]. The mechanism of action of the compound is apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and transcription factor regulation. Withanolides isolated from D. metel L. leaf extract inhibit tumor cell proliferation against human colorectal carcinoma [44]. Nicotine an alkaloid from Nicotiana tabacuum L. inhibits cancer cells by regulation of tumor necrosis factor [45]. Anthocyanins from S. tuberosum L. were found to cause inhibition of cell multiplication and apoptosis in different cancer cell models [30]. Degalactotigonin was isolated from S. nigrum L. showed cytotoxic effect for human tumor cell lines for pancreatic cancer cells induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by inhibiting signaling pathway [46].

Saponins from Solanum trilobatum L. leaf extract showed anticancer effect and initiation of apoptosis in human larynx cancer cell lines [47]. Saponins Torvosides M, Yamoscin, Indioside H, Borassoside E, Indioside I, and Dioscin isolated from S. torvum, Solanum violaceum, and Solanum indicum showed anticancer property [48]. Sesquiterpenoids from S. lyratum, named solajiangxin D and solajiangxins E, and 2-hydroxysolajiangxin E were isolated and were found to show significant cytotoxicity against three human cancer lines [49]. It has been reported that W. somnifera L. inhibits DMBA-induced carcinogenesis in mice [50]. Cycloeucalenone,24-oxo-31-norcycloartanone isolated from Solanum cernuum, Lyratol D, Solajiangxin B, Blumenol A, Dehydrovomifoliol from S. lyratum. Flavonoids rutin, Tiliroside from Solanum anguvi, Solanum elaeagnifolium exhibit anticancer activity. Solanum betaceum contains flavonoids, such as keracyanin, pelargonidin 3-rutinoside, tulipanin, delphinidin 3-O-α-L-rhamnosyl-(1–6)-β-D-glucoside-3′-O-β-D-glucoside show anticancer properties [35]. The ethanol extract from ripe fruits of S. nigrum L. showed anticancer activity by inhibiting the proliferation of human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and inducing cell death by apoptosis [51].

The above-mentioned plants exhibit anticancer mechanisms by cell cycle arrest: The cell cycle contains several proteins at the checkpoint. Cancer cells overcome this checkpoint leads to the multiplication of cells. So inducing cell cycle arrest can be an alternative method in the treatment of cancer. Various researches show that this is possible by phytochemicals. The phytochemicals, such as solanine, solanidine, solamargine, and α-chaconine, result in cell cycle arrest at the S phase of the cell cycle and thereby induce apoptosis based on various concentrations [52] (Figure 3).

Figure 3.

Mechanism of cell cycle inhibition by phytochemicals of Solanaceae [50, 52].

Studies prove that these chemicals have anticancer properties against different types of cancer, such as breast cancer, colon cancer, cervical cancer, and liver cancer.

Another mechanism involved in anticancer therapy is the regulation of transcription by inhibiting oncogenic transcription factors. Withaferin isolated from Withania sominifera shows antitumor activity by regulating transcription factors [5].

Physapubescin B and physapubenolide isolated from Physalis pubescens exhibit anticancer mechanisms by autophagy (Figure 4) and apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines [53].

Figure 4.

Anticancer mechanism of physapubenolide [53].

Other mechanisms include the suppression of metabolic enzymes. Some plant molecules can cause apoptosis by breaking the mitochondrial membrane. Defensin isolated from Nicotiana alata induces necrotic-like cell death in a number of tumor cells [5]. The summary of the anticancer potential of selected plants that are economically useful to humans of the Solanaceae family with the mechanism of their action against different cancer cell lines which is reviewed in this literature from previous works by eminent workers is given in the table (Table 5).

Plant SourcePhytochemicalModelMechanism of Action
Solanum tuberosum L.SolanineHuman pancreatic cancer cell lines, human melanoma cell lines, human prostate cancer cellsApoptosis
S. tuberosum L.
Solanum americanuum L.
SolanidineHuman lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549)
A549 CAM xenograft BALB/c mouse model
Inhibition of DNA synthesis
Solanum arboretum Humb.
Solanum aculeastrum Dunal.
TomatidineHuman fibrosarcoma cells, human lung adenocarcinoma cell A549Suppression of cell invasion by inhibition of ERK and Akt signaling pathways
Solanum cathayanum C.Y.Wu.
Lycopersicum esculentum L.
TomatineProstate cancer in miceInduction of apoptosis mediated by P13K/Akt pro-signaling pathway
Solanum palinacanthum Dunal
Solanum lycocarpum Hil
Solanum melongena L.
SolamargineHuman liver cancer cell lines, i.e., HepG2 and Huh-7 cells
Human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y)
By arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase
Solanum incanum L.SolasodineHuman colorectal cancer cellsSuppression of the AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3β/β-catenin pathway
Capsicum frutescens L.CapsaicinHuman cell lines of different originsApoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, transcription factor regulation
Datura metel L.WithanolidesHuman colorectal carcinomaInhibit tumor cell proliferation
Nicotiana tabacuum L.NicotineHuman airway epithelial cells.By regulation of tumor necrosis factor
S. tuberosum L.AnthocyaninsDifferent cancer cell modelsInhibition of cell multiplication and apoptosis
Solanum nigrum L.DegalactotigoninHuman Pancreatic cancer cell linesInduces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by inhibiting the signaling pathway
Solanum trilobatum L.SaponinsHuman larynx cancer cell linesInitiation of apoptosis
Withania sominifera L.WithaferinChicken myeloid cell lines (HD11-C3-GFP1 Myb reporter cell line)
Human Myeloid leukemia cell line (HL60)
Quail Japanese fibrosarcoma (QT6)
Mouse preadipocyte cell line (3T3-L1)
By regulating transcription factors
Physalis pubescens L.Physapubescin B and physapubenolideColorectal cancer cell lines.Autophagy and apoptosis

Table 5.

Mechanism of action of phytochemicals in Solanaceae on different models of cell lines [30, 35, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54].

The effective study of the mechanism of phytochemicals in the Solanaceae family will open a new approach to the treatment of cancer.

Many of these are commercially interesting because of their use as flavors and fragrances in foods and cosmetics.

Many of these are commercially interesting because of their use as flavors and fragrances in foods and cosmetics.

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9. Conclusion

Cancer is one of the major public health problems across the world. The pandemic condition of the current world results in the delay of diagnosis and treatment that may lead to increased complications in the treatment of cancer. Phytochemicals from Solanaceae exhibit anticancer activity against various type of cancer.

These compounds proved their efficiency in the inhibition of cancer cell line proliferation by cell cycle arrest, regulation of transcription factors, blocking the signal pathways, initiation of apoptosis, and suppression of metastasis. Most of the compound shows positive results with a combination of other phytochemicals in cancer treatment. The effective study of these biomolecules as anticancer targets can lead to clinical trials and in the future, it opens an effective area for the treatment of cancer and prevention.

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Acknowledgments

The author acknowledges and thanks to Karpagam Academy of Higher Education, Coimbatore providing the internet facility to complete this review process.

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Written By

Sangilimuthu Alagar Yadav and Feba Sara Koshi

Submitted: 17 February 2022 Reviewed: 11 March 2022 Published: 25 June 2022