Confirmed plant hosts of
The industrial revolution, globalization and international trade liberalization are some of the important events that have afforded vast opportunities for invasive insect species to establish in new territories . These invasive species, facing no challenge by their natural enemies, thrive well in the new environment . In addition to the disturbance they cause to the biodiversity, pest invasion in any country results in increased pressure on biosecurity, national economy, and human health management systems [1, 3, 4]. Apart from economic loss in managing them, these pests pose a significant detrimental impact on tourism and recreational value of the region, which further adds in indirect economic damage to the nation . Of this large group of invasive pests, thrips are one of the most important members. The invasive status gained by thrips across the globe is due to their high degree of polyphagy, wide host range and easy dispersal that can be anthropogenic or natural (wind-mediated).
The earliest fossil record of order Thysanoptera dates back to the Late Triassic period, from the state of Virginia in the United States and the country Kazakhstan in Central Asia, but their abundance was rare until the Cretaceous period from which many specimens of Thysanoptera have been recorded . The order Thysanoptera was given its current taxonomic rank by an Irish entomologist, A. H. Haliday in 1836, and since then more than 8,000 species of thrips have been reported. In this insect order, the genus
This chapter is intended to summarize the parameters facilitating worldwide distribution of this pest, damage potential and the advancement in the post-invasion management strategies being practiced in the United States and other parts of the world. The focus will be on the latest development in the integrated pest management of
2. Background information
The great reproductive potential and keen ability for invasion combined with easy adaptation to newly invaded areas are a few of the qualities which make
3. Geographical distribution
3.1. Worldwide distribution
3.2. U.S. invasion
Changing climatic conditions and globalization have resulted in the increasing importance of invasive species as recurrent problems around the globe. More than 50,000 non-indigenous species have already been introduced into the United States, causing an estimated annual damage of more than $120 billion in forestry, agriculture and other sectors of society [3, 21]. The rich vegetation and neotropical climate of Florida make the state suitable for the invasion and establishment of exotic flora and fauna .
Venette and Davis  projected the potential geographic distribution of
4. Economic impact
Among 8,800 species of thrips, around 5,000 species has been well described with their diverse life history and habitats . Approximately 1% of the members of this order have been reported as serious pests by humans owing to various damages which disrupt their life styles . Thrips can reduce yield or value of the crop directly by using them as food and oviposition site and indirectly by transmitting plant diseases. Their infestation can negatively impact global trade due to the quarantine risks associated with several species in the order. The majority of scientific literature related to economics of thrips deals with four important thrips species:
India is one of the world’s largest chilli (
Globally, the popularity and demand for mango (
The invasion of
5. Host plants
Prior to the introduction of
||Liberty Classic White Snapdragon|
||Peanut or groundnut|
||Snow bush, snow-on-the-mountain|
||Jalapeno pepper, Bonnet pepper|
||Celosia – red fox|
||golden dewdrop, pigeonberry, skyflower|
||Florida Blue Lisianthus|
||Burgundy Rubber Tree|
Neson & Pruski
||Super Elfin White|
||Petunia Easy Wave Red|
||Shi Ban Mu|
||Dwarf umbrella tree|
||Zinnia Profusion White|
6. Host damage
Correct identification is a primary step in the development of sound management practices against a pest. Identification helps in attaining previously reported information against the subject species  crucial in planning and implementation of an appropriate biological research strategy. Morphological identification characters of
The body of adult
Using traditional taxonomic keys, adult thrips can be identified to genus, but due to the intraspecific morphological variations in many species, identifying them to species requires substantial expertise . For many taxa of thrips it is impossible to assign an immature to a particular species in the absence of adults ). In addition, high levels of variation in the basic biology, life history, host selection, pest status, vector efficiency and resistance to insecticides exist in different thrips species. Misidentification of thrips species can lead to the misapplication of management practices, resulting in wasted money, resources and time . Selection of the wrong biological control agents due to the ambiguous identification of the target pest discourages growers to adopt chemical free pest management strategies. Thus, a rapid, species-specific, developmental-stage non-limiting method for identification of thrips species is of paramount importance to implement appropriate IPM strategies.
Taxonomic characterization of thrips, including
8. Life cycle
Thysanopterans have always been recorded as opportunistic species, as their life history strategies were preadapted from a detriophagous ancestral group developed in a habitat where optimal conditions of survival were brief . Mating does not result in fertilization of all the eggs and unfertilized eggs produce males while fertilized eggs produce females. Sex ratio is in favor of female progeny . The stages of the life cycle of
9. Management strategies
9.1. Sampling plan
Appropriate methodology for sampling
In general, insects may have clumped, random or regular distribution in the field and at the initial stage of invasion, insects may appear at a certain location(s) of a crop field depending on environmental factors. These locations may be at the edge of the fields or inside the fields. Known factors that influence such distribution includes wind direction, light intensity, soil fertility, soil moisture, crop vigor and crop nitrogen levels. In several of our studies,
|Field 1 (October 2004, rainy season)|
|Field 2 (March 2005, dry season)|
|Field 3 (March 2005, dry season)|
Direct methods of
9.2. Cultural practices
Development of effective management practices for
In Japan, synthetic reflective (vinyl) film has been used to protect citrus crops from
9.3. Chemical control
Chemical control is the primary mode of management of
|Dinotefuran||Venom®, Safari® SG||4A||10||15||0||0|
|imidacloprid||Marathon®, Provado®, Admire®||4A||15||15||15||15|
|Borax + orange oil + detergents||TriCon®||8D||10||10||-||-|
|Beauveria bassiana||Botanigard®||Not applicable||3-7||3-7||-||-|
|Metarhizium anisopliae||Met52®||Not applicable||7||7||-||-|
Management practices from an ecological point-of-view must be environmental friendly but from a growers’ viewpoint must be economical, fast acting as well as long lasting. Different chemical insecticides that could satisfy all concerns, like spinetoram and various neonicotinoid insecticides do cause significant reduction in
9.4. Biological control
Biological control is the active manipulation of beneficial organisms to reduce the pest population below the economic injury level . In this, activity of one species is exploited to reduce adverse effects of another. It is one of the oldest types of pest management strategies. Biological control is employed with the aim of long time pest control by bringing the pest population to non-economic levels. Biological controlling agents are living natural enemies e.g. predators, parasitoid, parasites or pathogens. Various biological controlling agents like minute pirate bugs,
The role of entomopathogens like
10. Future prospects
Apart from changing climatic conditions, insect pests are another constraint affecting agricultural production. Insect pests are responsible for loss estimates of 10-20% of main agricultural crops which makes them a major yield limiting factor . To control these pests chemical insecticides are often used by growers on a calendar basis which backfires many times and it leads to a “3R” situation - resistance, resurgence and replacement. To check this situation, it is important to utilize all the resources available in the agroecosystem in a controlled and effective manner. Integrated pest management is an ecosystem-based pest management strategy which focuses on the longtime control of pests using a combination of techniques, such as cultural control, biological control, habitat manipulation, and use of biotechnological methods. Chemical insecticides are used wisely only after monitoring, under suitable guidelines with the aim to control target pests with no effect on non-target organisms and environment. In the case of
In the near future, advancement in biological control strategies of
AcknowledgmentsThis paper is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the PhD degree of the senior author. We express our heartful thanks to Dr. David Hall for allowing us to use SEM facility at USHRL, USDA-ARS in Fort Pierce, Florida. We appreciate Dr. Wayne Hunter for training in scanning electron microscope and John Prokop and Michael Cartwright for technical assistance during the experiment. Special thanks to Dr. David Schuster, Dr. Aaron Dickey for their constructive criticism and helpful comments which was important in the preparation of the previous version of this manuscript. Mention of any trade names or products does not imply endorsement or recommendation by the University of Florida or USDA.
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