About the book
The quark model was independently proposed by Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. A quark is one of the fundamental particles in physics. They join to form hadrons, such as protons and neutrons, which are components of the nuclei of atoms. The antiparticle of a quark is the antiquark. Quarks and antiquarks are the only two fundamental particles that interact through all four fundamental forces of physics: gravitation, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak interactions.
A quark exhibits confinement, which means that the quarks are not observed independently but always in combination with other quarks. This makes determining the properties (mass, spin, and parity) impossible to measure directly; these traits must be inferred from the particles composed of them. There are six flavors of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top. The flavor of the quark determines its properties.
There are three generations of quarks, based on pairs of weak positive/negative, weak isospin. The first generation quarks are up and down quarks, the second-generation quarks are strange and charm quarks, the third generation quarks are top and bottom quarks. The up and down quarks make up protons and neutrons, seen in the nucleus of ordinary matter. They are the lightest and most stable. The heavier quarks are produced in high-energy collisions and rapidly decay into up and down quarks.
The baryons and mesons known at the time fell into symmetric families of multiplets (octuplets, decuplets) sharing two identical quantum numbers (spin and parity), but differing in an ordered way in others (mass, charge, baryon number and strangeness). The mathematical group to fit this complex situation-SU3, the symmetric, unitary group of dimension 3-was proposed independently by Gell-Mann and Ne'eman. The validity of SU3 was demonstrated by the experiment. A major prediction was that a particle (the omega-minus), an isotopic singlet with spin = 3/2, positive parity, mass of roughly 1,680 MeV, negative charge, baryon number +1, strangeness = -3, and stable to strong decay, should exist to complete the 3/2+ baryon decuplet. It was therefore a major triumph for the scheme when the omega-minus, a baryon with the precise mass, charge, and strangeness predicted, was discovered in 1964. All these facts introduced a quark idea fully into modern physics.
This book will be a self-contained collection of scholarly papers targeting an audience of practicing researchers, academics, PhD students and other scientists. The contents of the book will be written by multiple authors and edited by experts in the field.