Part of the book: Analysis of Genetic Variation in Animals
Zoos and Aquariums in North America have evolved over the past few decades from institutions that exhibit animals primarily for public enjoyment to conservation organizations whose mission is to inspire and contribute significantly to wildlife conservation. The Association of Zoo and Aquariums, AZA, accredits public institutions in North America that house wildlife based on strict industry standards of exhibitry, husbandry, veterinary medicine and education. The role of conservation research has evolved in AZA facilities from just a handful of staff participating in a few projects to many facilities now having entire departments dedicated to conservation research. In 2003, AZA institutions reported in the Annual Report on Conservation Science (ARCS) that 83% of its member’s participated in over 2,370 conservation projects in 107 countries and spent $77 million (AZA ARCS 2003). More recently the 2014 ARCS report stated that AZA institutions dramatically increased their conservation efforts from 2010 with 88% of members participating in conservation projects and spending 154 million. Many of the top accredited aquariums have strong conservation programs and are spending at least 3% of their budgets on conservation efforts with projects focusing on species and ecosystems and topics of global concern such as climate change and marine debris..
Part of the book: Global Exposition of Wildlife Management
The Seattle Aquarium is centrally located on Elliott Bay in Puget Sound, built on a pier along the central waterfront in Seattle, WA, USA. The Seattle Aquarium Water Quality Laboratory regularly measures water quality metrics on incoming saltwater pumped directly from Elliott Bay for use in the animal exhibits. This study provides a descriptive temporal analysis of variability in the incoming saltwater conducted from 2007 through 2016. Parameters measured on a weekly basis include ammonia (NH3), nitrite (NO2), pH and fecal coliform bacteria. Ammonia mean throughout the dataset was 0.02 mg/l (SE ± 0.0005), with clear seasonal trends of higher ammonia levels during the summer months (May, June and July) annually. Nitrite mean was 0.01 mg/l (SE ± 0.002), with clear seasonal trends of this nutrient with bi-annual peaks in spring and fall (May and September). Saltwater pH mean was 7.81 (SE ± 0.004), trending lower in winter and spring and higher in summer and fall. Fecal coliform bacteria mean over the 10-year period was 20 colony-forming units (CFU) per 100 ml of water. Overall, Elliott Bay water quality remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2016, and if remains unchanged, will continue to be a reliable source of saltwater with known water quality parameters for use in animal exhibits in the Seattle Aquarium.
Part of the book: Water Challenges of an Urbanizing World