The cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in the world and presents a higher chemical variability for presence of several hydroxyl groups. These hydroxyl groups allow surface modification of biomaterials, with insertion of several chemical groups which change cellulose characteristics. This natural biopolymer and its derivatives have been used a lot as adsorbent, from several contaminants of aqueous medium due to biocompatibility, chemical degradability, and variability. Therefore, this chapter has the objective to review the literature about several cellulose surfaces or cellulosic material (incorporation of carboxymethyl, phosphorus, carboxyl, amines, and sulfur), presenting the main characteristics of reactions and showing its adsorption in application of aqueous medium (metals, dyes, and drugs), locating the main interactions between biomaterial/contaminant.
Part of the book: Cellulose