Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) that have come to stay and are still being improved upon in developed countries are still in their infancy stage in developing countries like Nigeria. Nigeria’s cattle population is estimated to be around 18.4 million. The number is far insufficient to meet the country’s demand for meat, milk, and other cow products, let alone contribute to GDP. N’dama and Muturu are both Nigerian breeds that are resistant to trypanosomosis. They are humpless longhorn and humpless shorthorn types of beef cattle. The dairy and beef cow industries’ inadequate adoption of ART is partly to blame for Nigeria’s low cattle output. Sex determination, multiple-ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), oestrus synchronization, artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), cloning, and genetic engineering are all examples of assisted reproductive technologies. It has been reported in humans, rodents and domestic animals, abnormal fetuses, newborns and adult offspring arise from ART. Improper matching of breeding animals mostly leads to overfat calves. This review centers on the applications and potentials of ART in the production of trypanotolerant N’dama and Muturu cattle breeds. Some unorthodox medicines which have proven effective in human reproduction can circumvent the shortfalls in the adoption of ART.
Part of the book: Bovine Science
Indigenous plant species native to Africa have numerous uses. They have a long and rich ethno-medicinal history with well-known native applications in different African countries. The effects of these indigenous underutilized crops in local traditional medicine differ. But they play an important role in enhancing food and nutrition security of the population. Tropical plant species have economic potential as they make great socio-economic impact on the livelihoods of rural dwellers. Despite their economic, food and nutritional values, these plants are still underutilized and have not been brought under regular cultivation culture due to inadequate information about their food values and their agronomic requirements for cultivation. Their potential values to the African food system could be enhanced if they are domesticated and prevented from going into extinction. Thus, the potential implications for long-term sustainable food security of these plants should not be neglected. Therefore, there is the need to recognize and enable indigenous foods from the indigenous plant species to serve as a key resource in ensuring healthy food systems in Africa. The inherent potential of the following tropical indigenous plant species African Walnut (Plukenetia conophora Muell Arg.), Saba (Saba senegalensis (A. DC.) Pichon), Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and Kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) are discussed in this review.
Part of the book: Tropical Plant Species and Technological Interventions for Improvement