Part of the book: Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies
In this chapter, we will review how viruses can be used to positively affect joints and cartilage of their hosts. Many viruses are arthrogenic, and cause persistent and debilitating arthritis. Even those viruses that are not typically arthrogenic can also cause bone lesions as secondary pathogenesis. Some of these foes include members of the alphaviruses, like chikungunya and Ross River viruses, the rubiviruses, such as rubella, and erythoparvoviruses, like parvovirus B19. Some more uncommon viruses, which can occasionally have detrimental effects on their hosts’ joints, include herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster, mumps, human cytomegalovirus, avian orthoreovirus, and caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Despite some viruses having negative impacts on cartilage and joints, others have been used as an effective means of gene therapy for bone and cartilage repair. We will take an in-depth look at the current therapeutic strategies for treating arthritis using various viral vectors.
Part of the book: Cartilage Repair and Regeneration
Leishmania (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) parasites are known to cause a broad spectrum of clinical diseases in humans, collectively known as the leishmaniases. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is the most common clinical presentation with varying degrees of severity largely driven by host immune responses, specifically the interplay between innate and adaptive immune response. The establishment of a T lymphocyte driven cell-mediated immune response, leading to activated phagocytic cells, leading to Leishmania parasite killing and control of infection. Alternatively, the Leishmania parasite manipulates the host immune system, enabling parasite proliferation and clinical disease. Here we review how the cumulative interactions of different aspects of the host immune response determines disease outcome, severity, and immunity to re-infection.
Part of the book: Leishmaniasis