Graphene-Polyaniline Biosensor for Carbamate Pesticide Determination in Fruit Samples
In this study, a simple, sensitive, and low cost electrochemical biosensor for the quantitative determination of carbamate pesticides has been constructed. A composite consisting of polyaniline (PANI) and graphene oxide was electrochemically synthesised on a platinum electrode. This sensor platform was then used in the biosensor construction by electrostatic attachment of the enzyme, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto the surface of the Pt/GO-PANI electrode. Voltammetric results concluded that HRP immobilised on the Pt/GO-PANI composite retained its bio-electrocatalytic activity towards the reduction of H2O2 and was not changed during its immobilisation. The Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor was then applied to successfully detect standard carbamate pesticides in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (PB; pH = 6.8) solution. Various performance and stability parameters were evaluated for the Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor, which included the optimal enzyme loading, effect of pH and long-term stability of the biosensor on its amperometric behaviour. The Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor was finally applied to the detection of three carbamate pesticides of carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl using the enzyme inhibition method. Carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl analyses were amperometrically determined using spiked real samples of orange, pear, and grapes, within a concentration range of 0.01–0.3 mg/L. These results indicated that the biosensor is sensitive enough to detect carbamate pesticides in real fruit matrices. The detection limit for carbaryl, carbofuran, and methomyl in real fruit samples by amperometric method was determined to be 0.136 mg/L, 0.145 mg/L, and 0.203 mg/L, respectively. The application of the Pt/GO-PANI/HRP biosensor has demonstrated that the biosensor is sensitive enough for amperometric detection and could be a useful tool in the screening of these pesticides at low concentrations.
Part of the book: Biosensors
Nanotoxicity in Aquatic Invertebrates
Due to their unique properties, nanomaterials (NMs) are being incorporated in several applications including consumer products, electronics, pesticides and the pharmaceutical industry. As such, the rapid development and large-scale production of NMs has inspired concerns regarding their environmental health risks. In order to address these concerns, there has been a rapid development in the methods of toxicity testing of NMs, specifically in aquatic organisms. Understanding the unique properties of nanoscale materials has proven to be a particular important aspect of their toxicity. Properties such as surface area, surface coating, surface charge, particle reactivity, aggregation and dissolution may affect cellular uptake, in vivo reactivity and distribution across tissues. The behaviour of NPs is influenced by both the inherent properties of the NP as well as environmental properties (such as temperature, pH, ionic strength, salinity, organic matter). As such, this chapter describes methodologies of NM characterization in exposure media and NM in vivo toxicity experimental procedures under variable environmental conditions (with special emphasis on temperature).
Part of the book: Invertebrates
Graphene Oxide–Antimony Nanocomposite Sensor for Analysis of Platinum Group Metals in Roadside Soil Samples
The present study introduced a very sensitive and low-cost analytical procedure based on voltammetry to study platinum group metals in road dust and roadside soil matrices. Cathodic stripping voltammetry in conjunction with a reduced graphene oxide-antimony nanocomposite sensor and ICP-MS analysis were used to analyse roadside soil and dust samples. The results were processed to evaluate possible pollution in order to map the distribution of the PGMs along specific roads in the Stellenbosch area, outside Cape Town. The results revealed that within each site under investigation, Pd was more abundant than Pt and Rh using both voltammetric and spectroscopic methods. The AdDPCSV results obtained showed concentrations for Pd(II) ranging between 0.92 – 4.0 ng kg–1. For Pt (II), the concentrations ranged between 0.84 – 0.99 ng kg–1. For Rh(III), concentrations ranged between 0.42 – 1.21 ng kg–1. The ICP-MS results showed Pd concentrations ranging between 0.01 – 0.34 µg kg–1. For Pt the concentrations ranged between 0.004 – 0.07 µg kg–1. For Rh, concentrations ranged between 0.002 – 0.26 µg kg–1. The analysis showed significant levels of all PGMs in soil and dust samples analysed. Metal concentration in dust and soil followed the trend Pd > Pt > Rh using both voltammetric and spectroscopic techniques
Part of the book: Graphene Materials
Optimisation of Parameters for Spectroscopic Analysis of Rare Earth Elements in Sediment Samples
The rapid demand for rare earth elements (REEs) in recent years due to increased use in various technological applications, agriculture, etc. has led to increased pollution and prevalence of REEs in the environment. Therefore, monitoring for REEs in the aquatic environment has become essential including the risk assessment to aquatic organisms. Since direct determination of REEs in sediment samples prove difficult at times, due to low concentrations available and complex matric effects, separation and enrichment steps are sometimes used. In this work, various REEs were determined employing wet acid digestion and lithium metaborate fusion in our optimised analytical technique. A comparison of the two analytical techniques was also made. The results obtained from the optimised ICP-OES radial view technique were in 5% agreement with the ICP-MS results from the same samples. The accuracy of the method was checked with the geological reference material GRE-03 and found to be in reasonable agreement. We demonstrated that there is a consistent relationship between the signals of the REEs and nebuliser gas flow rates, plasma power and pump speed. The detection limits for all the REEs ranged from 0.06 mg L-1 Yb to 2.5 mg L-1 Sm using the ICP-OES fusion technique.
Part of the book: Rare Earth Element
Voltammetric Analysis of Platinum Group Metals Using a Bismuth-Silver Bimetallic Nanoparticles SensorView all chapters
This study dealt with the development of a bismuth-silver bimetallic nanosensor for differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry of platinum group metals (PGMs) in environmental samples. The nanosensor was fabricated by drop coating a thin bismuth-silver bimetallic film onto the active area of the screen-printed carbon electrodes. Optimization parameters such as pH, dimethylglyoxime (DMG) concentration, deposition potential and deposition time, stability test and interferences were also studied. In 0.2 M acetate buffer (pH = 4.7) solution and DMG as the chelating agent, the reduction signal for PGMs ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng L−1. In the study of possible interferences, the results have shown that Ni(II), Co(II), Fe(III), Na+, SO42−, and PO43− do not interfere with Pd(II), Pt(II), and Rh(III) in the presence of DMG with sodium acetate buffer as the supporting electrolyte solution. The limit of detection for Pd(II), Pt(II), and Rh(III) was found to be 0.07, 0.06 and 0.2 ng L−1, respectively. Good precision for the sensor application was obtained with a reproducibility of 7.58% for Pd(II), 6.31% for Pt(II), and 5.37% for Rh(III) (n = 10).
Part of the book: Recent Progress in Organometallic Chemistry